Howitt and Fison Papers

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the boundaries of these subtribes were well defined and no one must pass beyond them in search of food.

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West of the Darling River and extending to the Barrier/Barrier Range and Grey/Grey Ranges Ranges in the west, the the Warrego River in the --- and having a frontage to the Darling RIver from about 50 miles north of the junction of the Warrego & Darling to about ---[not named in text] [?] [?] Wilcannia there were at least ten tribes which divided the country between them, being themselves divided up into still smaller groups (Hordes).

But in the other hand some of these ten tribes may be arranged in two larger groups to which the term "nation" is not inapplicable. The tribes 1. 2. & 4 constituted the [Itch-u-mundi? or itch-u-nundi? ] Nation and the tribe 9. and 10. were the [Kara-mundi?] Nation.

[Left margin] Itchunundi [with brackest to 1, 2, 4, 3]

1 - (1) Wilya, [underlined] occupying the country about the Grey Ranges and having its head quarters at Endeavour Lake. 2 - (2) Kongaita [underlined] - North and South of [?] Range and having its head quarters at Cobham Lake 4 - (3) [Boolali?] [underlined] occupying the Barrier Range Country and having its head Quarters at Poolamacca and Sturts meadow3 - (4) Tongarauka [underlined] occupying the country including Momba Tarella, Wonominta and Yandarlo, also the Daubeny Range and having its head Quarters at Momba and Tarella The name means a "hillside" or "under a hill".

[Left margin note] Karamundi [with brackets to 5, 6, 7, 8]

5 - (5) [Milpultho?]. [underlined] The Darling River frontage from Wilcannia down to ---- [no place written] 6 - [6&7 overwritten] - (6) Nanalko. [underlined] The Darling RIver frontage sfrom Wilcannia up to about 70 miles below Bourke. 7 - (7) [Gūerno?] Thence up the River to Bourke 8 - [arrow from 6 to here] (9) [Bŭrumbinya?] [underlined] From Bourke up to the Barwan River 9 - (9) Badjeri. [underlined] The tribe extends up the Warrego River from a point about 50 miles north of the junction of the Warrego/Warrego River with the Darling/Darling River and up the Warrego/Warrego River to ---- [no place recorded]

Last edit 5 months ago by Christine
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In these tribes there appears to be a subsidiary or secondary clan [word crossed out] which divides the totems thus:

[Table 2 columns][Column headings]Mŭkolo - GnilpūrūBilyari - TirltāTŭrū - [Burkumia?]Wamba - KultapaX - KaruiX - YaranjeX - KurliX - KulthiX - BauanyalX - Wonjarū

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My informant was unable to explain this which appears most unusual and his blackfellows of this tribe could only tell him that every blackfellow is [either?] Mŭkolo or Gnilpūrū and that the latter is "[bein?] fellow" as the " by old men" long ago said.

Under this form of the two clans in [Iperi? or Iperū] tribes [crossed out - systemic descent] [crossed out - is [?]] marriage is as already described, that is between Mukuara and Kilpera and of any totem of the clan as among the Dieri. But in the following tribes of this group the law differs a little as to these totems. The clan [?] is from in [?] B.(5) the Milpulko, on the Darling River frontages from Wilcannia down to some fifty miles below Menindee, (6) The [Ni nalko?] from Wilcannia up to about 70 miles below Burke (7) The Gūerno thence up to Burke (8) the [Burum brūyah?] from Bourke up to the Barwan River - (9) the Badjeri extending up the Warrego River/Warrego from a point about 50 milenorth of the junction of the Warrego & Darling Rivers (10) Barūngi occupying the Waanaring district in the Paroo River and (11) the Kurlingali which is a back country tribe on the south side of the Darling River towards Cobar.

In these tribes the exogamic rule [crossed out - the marriage restriction relates] must only apply to the clan and all its totems, [crossed out - of the clans] but also to some of the totems of [?] of the clans [crossed out - with which marriage may take]. Thus while a man being Mukura-Tirlta may marry a woman being Kilpara-Kulthi [word crossed out] ([?]) (1) he may not marry a woman who is Kilpara-[?ileberi?]

Last edit about 1 month ago by Christine
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