Howitt and Fison Papers

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Table of Relationships

When there are two boys in a family the younger calls the elder "Wotherong" The elder calls the younger "Norra" The father calls them "Coo-mar" The mother calls them "Cun-nie" Two girls in a family the younger calls the elder "Yaboyu" The elder calls the younger "Nie-bar The father calls them "Nook-in" The mother calls them "Cunyau" The Uncle calls the boys "Cun-nie" The Aunt calls them "Coo-man" The Uncle calls the girls "Cun-gau" The Aunt calls them "Coo-mar." "Yaboyu" for sister & "Norra" for brother. "Baboin father "Ubung" mother "Cun-mie" Uncle "Yeroane" Aunt are the natives equivalent for our forms. These terms "Wotherong" "Norra" "Cooman" "Cunnie" &c are only used when the children are young, as a rule before they come to the age of puberty they have one or two names given them & by these are known to the [.....] the brothers, sisters generally use them except when extra affectionate or respectful The Father & Mother the same. At the age of puberty the "jin?" wears the "Yaw-bo" [...] short girdle of "opossum?" hair. The boy is allowed to put some paint on his body & later on comes his initiation at the "Yor".

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they were "originally?" decended from different animals. The Kangaroo, "Emu?", Iguana, Opossum, "Paddymelon?", Snake and others. Their law "means?" that "two big?" [.....] [....] not marry; like Kangaroo and "Iguana?" So she having an "Ipatha?", she is a Kangaroo gin, there- fore she marries an Iguana blackfellow. They go under this heading, as she gave them to me.

"Conho?" = Kangaroo "Kublai?" = Iguana "Ipai?" = Kangeroo Murri = Iguana

these being some of the tribal forefathers.

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December 1st 1907

Class TotemIpai X Kangaroo = gaalahKumboGillah =girrahB- duck = gom-dune-'gullScrub turkey = War'-gooh'-gahCodfish = Girr'ali'yeeRed Snake = Garru = B-diamond lizard = ThrornineCrawfish = Mao'rar'moo'roo'tiger snake = Mill'ah'aru gaenhorse fly = Mao'rao'gnine Mosquito = Boo'roo'aneSmall black ant = MelgiddyMeat ant = Nar'ah'ree'water rat = Moog'geeTerantular [sic]= Moor-fineEmu = NooringWalleroo = Narr'ah'goofrog = Tharndietree frog = Bill'harlgreen frog = Burrendigel

1. can you learn which of the sub-class Ipai-Kumbo totemsmarried with the severalMurri-Kubbi / totems?you have given kangaroo and Iguanakangaroo and opossum, [iguana - crossed out][and Kangaroo - crossed out]what about all the other totems ?

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[3 columns]Male Marries Children are

Ipai - Kangeroo [sic], Kubbitha iguanna [sic], Murri, Matha, iguanna [sic]Kumbo - [ditto] Matha opossum, Kubbitha Kubbi opossumMurri guanna [sic], Butha Kangeroo [sic], Ipai Ipatha KangerooKubbi guanna [sic], Ipatha Kangeroo, Butha Kumbo Kangeroo

You are quite correct the descent of namesruns through the Mother in the Moorawari

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[In the left hand margin](1) On the Kulin tribes division of food

W. Thomas-Latrobe Papers p65They seldom travel more than a six miles a day. In their migratory movements all are employed. Children are getting gum, knocking down birds +c,women are digging up roots,killing bandicoots, getting grubs +c; the men hunting kangaroos +cscaling trees for opossum + +. They mostly are at the encampment about an hour before sundown, (crossout) the women first, who get fire and water by the time their spouses arrive.

They hold that bush and all it contains are men's general property; that private property is only what utensils are carried in their bag and this extends even to the success of the day; hence at the close, those who have been successful divide with those who have not been so. None lacketh while others have itnor is the gift considered as a favor, but as right brought to the needy and thrown down at his feet. (1)

[Written in the left hand margin] WoewrungGame Woeworung

If a Woeworung man when out hunting killed a Kangaroo it was divided in accordance with tribal rules as with[food obtained - crossed out] assuming that the man had a comrade with him, they would take out the Entrails and unless the skin were required for some purpose, roast the kangaroo whole [??] [??] would be [??] One forequarter was kept by the man for himself, his wife and children. A leg or [a fore- crossed out] the other forequarter to his comrade. The head and an arm sent to the man's father and mother. And a leg andthe loins [were - crossed out] went to his wife’s father + mother care ofhis wife. The tail went to someone else.

In these tribes as in [the - crossed out] those of Gippsland a [the - crossed out] man was obliged to [provide - crossed out] give a certain amount of the game presented by him to his wife’s father. In instance if hecaught five opossoums, he kept one, two went to his wife's father. and two to her brothers. This appears like a perpetual purchase of the [woman - crossed out] wife. The woman also divided the food which she collectedwhich was mainly vegetables.

But if a man only killed enough game or procured enough ofother food for himself his wife & children then he need not divide it with others. But if he found that his father had no - food, he must give him what he had procured and go out and look for more. Similarly, if his wife’s father had no food - and no son to provide [some - crossed out] for him, he would give him food if he had it and seek more for himself. On the other hand if he had noneand his wife’s father had a supply he would send some by his daughter to her husband.

The old people used to say to the younger that people should divide their food with others and particularly with the old people and children. They said that Bunji was pleased where he saw the old people.

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NgarigoA messenger was called Gūnū milli and a messenge MabunHe might be any one chosen by the old men or the Headman.

NgarigoA messenger who merely carried a verbal [friendly greeting- crossed out] messagefrom some person to another would probably also carry with it a ball made of strips of opossumpelt rolled tightly together, as a friendly token fromthe sender.

[The messenger was some one selected by the old men - crossed out][or old men. He was of pemb chosen specially for - crossed out] A man was chosen [for the office of- crossed out] as messenger[the reason that if he- crossed out] for tribal matters who had relatives at the place to which he was to go.(1) If the message related to a meeting for ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------corroboree he carried a Kilt (Bŭran) a Headband [Birkumba - crossed out] (Ngūnūmila) and a nosepeg (elūngantū). If [in respect of war - crossed out] the message related to an expiatory fight he carried a shield for spear fighting (Birkūmba) [and - crossed out] but if [he take-crossed out][message - crossed out] it was to call a [part - crossed out] war party together he carried a Jag spear (Jerŭmbŭdi). [For - crossed out]In relation to the Initiations Kuringal (or) (Būnan) he carried the [Mu - crosse out] Bullroarer (Mūdji) and also a spear, boomerang and shield. [The following will serve as an example of how these messages - crossed out][are sent were sent in old times for a long- crossed out][distance between the tribes. Mr A MacKeachie of - crossed out][Delegate when travelling in 1840 on the Upper Snowy- crossed out]----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------(1). The man who acted as [my - crossed out] messenger [for the - crossed out] between myself andthe Murring [in the matter of as to- crossed out] about the holding of their Initiation ceremony (see p. )was one of the Snowy River Clan of the Kurnai tribes but his mother was a [of the Wolgal tribe of Maneroo and - crossed out] Ngarego woman He was then [so to say - crossed out]free of her tribe, and [He was - crossed out] was the recognized means of communication between [this tri- crossed out] his the Kurnai + Ngarego [tribe + his mother's tribe and- crossed out]. He spent [about as much time- crossed out][at one place- crossed out] his time mostly between the two places and had therebybecome known as the [coast -crossed out] Murring of the Coast.

[written in left hand margin]see foot note

cases

[the - crossed out][the one used for - crossed out][direct fighting]

A messenger carrying tidings of the death of some person had his face painted with a streak of whitefrom each eye down to thelower jaw. (2).

seenextpage

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which its path was directed were gathering together for war.

Their neighbourns the Wolgal thought that the Aurora showd that the blacks a long way off were fighting and that a number of them were killed. According to the Wotjoballuk the rainbow causes a person's fingers to become crooked, or contracted if he points with a straight finger at it, so that he will not be able to use his hand for making the markings with which [words crossed out] the opossum rugs are ornamented. [Therefore?] When pointing towards a rainbow the fingers must be turned over each other, the second over the first, the third over the second and the little finger over the third, by which the evil is avoided.

The Coast [Murring?] believed that the thunder is the voice of [Daramulan?]. The [Gringai?] had a great dread of thunder, and believe it to be the demonstration of the anger of some supernatural being rebuking them for some impropriety. As is [shown?] at (p ) this being is [Cooiee?].

The Wiradjuri call the Milkyway [Gŭlar?], by which name is also that of the Lachlan river. The stars α {alpha?] & [beta?] centauri?] are two young men [Kūnŭndra?] and [Bŭragin?] who are going to kill [an?] Emu which is sitting on its nest. The emu is the southern cross. The Corona Australis is [Kūkūbŭrra?] the Laughing jackass, and a [?] star in Argos is [?] [Bidjerigang?], the Shell Parrakeet.

The seasons are reckoned by the [Bigambud?] according to the time of the year at which trees blossom. For instance Yarra is the name of a [tree?] [which?] flowers in September, hence that time is called [Yarra_binda?]. The Apple-tree (I), which blossoms about Christ-mas, is [Nigabinda?]. The Ironbark (3) about the end of January which they call [Wo-binda?]. They also call this [?] which is in the height of summer "tima-koje-[?]", that is to [say?] the time when the ground burns the feet. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------(2). In Mr Maiden's/Maidenwork the following trees are noted as being called [Ironbark?] in New South Wales and Queensland. Eucalyptus leucoxylon F, V, M. E. siderophloia Benth., E. largiflorens F.V.M. -. E. [melanophloia] F.V.M.--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------(I) "Angophoras are called appletrees in the colonies from a fan-cied resemblanceto those trees", J.H. Maiden/Maiden The Useful Native plants of Australia, London and Sydney 1893.

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The office of Headman in the [?] Mara tribe was hereditary amd when a headman died his son or, failing him, a near male relative, became headman. This was, as the Goundich-mara say, the lawof the tribe before the whitemen came to the country. He hadthe power of [?] [?] [?] [?] [?] and when he did so all the men of the tribe followed him. He settled all quarrels and disputesin the tribe, and when he had done this no one disputed it. When forays had been made on some of the neighbouring tribes and spoil had been taken, he divided it. takingthe best for himself. The men of his tribewere obliged to provide him with food, and to make presents to him, such as kangaroo and opossum skin rugs, stone tomahawks, flint knives, weapons etc. (l) - [?]

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The following account of one of the ordeals in expiation wasgiven to me by Berak who was present at it. It was so far as I am able tofix the time somewhere about the year 1840 and the locality was theMerri Creek near Melbourne.

It arose out of the belief by the WesternPort tribeBunwurung, that a man from Echuca on the Murray River had found apiece of opossum bone from (?) remembered that he which one of their tribe had been eating and then thrown away. Taking this bone up between two pieces of wood, aman had put the piece of opossum bone into its hollow and tieing it tothe end of his spear thrower set this up in the ground and roasted itbefore the fire. He and others then sang the name of the Bunwurung man

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[Two words crossed out] This system of which the Dieri [crossed out - is represented by the]classes and totems + are an example extends over an immense area and only surrounding Lake Eyre butalso extending up the Barcoo River probably at least as far as ? [crossed out - Mt ?ilt] in the N. west of Lake Eyre to [no name recorded] where as [?] Spencer tells us (2) it is replaced by the four class system of the - [no name recorded] tribes. A from p 18A To the southward it extended down the Flinders Ranges [crossed out - and back] to near Port Augusta and has been recorded at Port Lincoln (3). [crossed out - overall these ext] Then the clan names Materi and Kararu cover an area -[no area given] miles - [no area given] miles. In table Appendix A are given the [identitie?] and variation in the totems of each class name for a number of tribes.

To the South East the Kararu and Materi do not extend beyond the range of the [Yantru wunta?] tribe whose limits [?] may be simply definded by the Grey/Grey Range and Barrier Ranges.

To the Eastward of the limit there is a similar great area occupied by allied tribes having a two clan organization, the classes being Muthwara and Kilpara with assorted totems.

This area [crossed out - carved by] may be defned as extendiing to the Warrego River to some distance East of the River Darling and for some distance both above and below the Junction of the Darling/Darling River & Murray/Murray River (4).

The class and totem system of these tribes are illustrated by the following [crossed out - taken from] which [?] in the Wily (1) a tribe occupying the counry about the Grey Range, Kingsgaite (2) occupying the country N & S of Cadell Ranges Būlali (5) (3) Boolati occupying the Barrier Range country, and (4) TongarauKa (6) occupyingte country about Momba, Tarella, Wonominta & [Yandarlo?] including the Dunbury Range.

[Left margin notes]+ Were it not that the word totem has been so long established in the English language and that it has a meaning wuite apropriate to the Australian facts, I [ful?]temped to introduce the Dieri word "murdu" as correct.

(2) quote this work(3)sent to [Mehelmi?](4) See as to local organization of these tribes p 14.(5) From Būlali - a hill(6) Tongarauka = Hillside or "under a hill"

[Table][Column 1] Class divisionsMūKwara[Column 2] TotemsBilyara - EaglehawkTirlta - KangarooBūrKūma - BandicootKultapa - DuckKarni - Frilled lizardYaranga - opossumKurli - dog

[Column 1] Class divisionsKilpara[Column 2] TotemsKulthi - EmuTūrū - carpet snakenamba - bonefishBauanyal - PadymelonWongarū - wallaby

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[Diagonal line upper left to lower right through text sometimes obscuring words]

[Table of 3 columns][Table title] - Clans and totems of the Wobjoballuk [underlined]

[Column heading titles]Classes - Totems - Claim

[Column 3 crossed out - Moiwillŭk (carpet snake) - tikomai (venomous snake)mindai (a small snake) - morokŭt [??] -wūrip (small bird with top knot) - mitjan (the moon)

[Column 1 at right angle to text 1-6] [Kro Kitch?]

(1) - Ngauina-gŭli [underlined] men of the sun - Bunjil (formal?] , Ngiarau (Turkey), ? (opossum), gŭr (a grub), jaruka (a tuber), gore (kangaroo), Burra (red kangaroo)

(2) - [gartapuka?] [underlined] [?] which [cos?] - "

(3) - Bareurin [underlined] a cave - "

(4) - Batya-ngal [underlined] Pelican - (There are Batjangal in both classes, I have not been able to ascertain how the totems are divided between each).

(5) - Wartwŭt [underlined] (Hot wind) - Moiwillŭk (carpet snake), tikomai (venomous snake), mindai (a small snake)morokŭt ([perman or German?] to Southeast), wūrip (small bird with top knot) mitjan (the moon)

(6) - Mŭnya? or Mŭrnya?] [underlined] a yam] - ?[Line across page]

[Column 1 at right angle to text 1-6] Gamutch

(1) - Jallan [underlined] deaf adder - [Gŭ??owara?] (black man) - [crossed out wūrand] Berejŭl (tiger cat)[Waa?] (crow), Wilkri (dingo)

(2) - Ngŭngŭl [underlined] The sea - ?

(3) - Batja-ngal [underlined] Pelican - [two words crossed out] ? (thunder), [gonŭ??] (magpie), boäm-baik (stick tail-native cat)Wanyip (Fire), [?]rtjuk (white gull or girl), Burtila (white back cormorant?]), Borŭp (small black cormorant) , Wangwŭng (large black cormorant) Ngari (Casuarina glauca), Karinbal (a wader with spotted breast & long [legs?]), Baruga ( grey heron), Propom ([?])

(4) = Wiraut [underlined] black cockater = Joyo (small iguana), Nganur (Lace lizard), Ngŭri ( black duck) gŭmil (green turtle), [Bernér?] (teal) jering (a bird)

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distance of the river Murray when were the northern boundaries of [crossed out - the River] tribes belonging to another group, [crossed out - To the eastern] and with the class & totem systems quite different in type within which I have been describing.

The [crossed out - system of] Woeworung system is clear, a modification of the two class system [crossed out - of the River & which occured] of the tribes at the Darling/Darling River & Murray/Murray River Rivers - "Wukwara and Kilpara" - but the totems are absent all but one. In my mind this is a case where the totems have died out and the [crossed out - tribal] myths of Kulin tribes throw some light upon their past existence.

These myths relate the [??] long ago of beings who were supernatural such as "Bunjil" who is featured in them as [crossed out - having] being another [??], and of other beings who were Animals and yet human, who took the forms of the Kangaroo, the wombat, the opossum, the Emu, the crow, the spiny anteater [crossed out - any] many and then [crossed out - yet] [??] moopoke as human being, that is big as [crossed out - these] aborigines themselves would (1). Some principal actors in these myths are the "Sons of Bunjil", or "[Bunjil's/Bunjil]] young men"[crossed out - that is] Thara the Quail Hawk, [Dju??yart?] the Nankeen Kestrel, [Dautun ?]the Blue [mormlain Dart?], [Yūkyuthy?] Green parakeet, Tadjery the [??] Phascologale and [Turuny?] [himself?] the opossum [??]. Of these Thara is [itell?] a totem and I cannot [find?] [??], the remainder were totems also and all of them were the class totems of Bunjil. But no traces remain of the totems of Waang the crow if [crossed out - it] [crossed out - be] they are not to be found in the other [Actors?] in there myths.

[Left margin note] (1) are [??] in Mr. [21A?] - Howit1898.

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36[Left margin note] Ngarego

The boundaries of the country of the Ngarego appear to have included the whole of the Maneroo plains and also the country beyond the Snowy River as far as the boundary of the Omeo tribe. Their neighbours in the [Western - crossed out] South west were the Kurnai by whom they were much dreaded and whom they called “Brajerak”(1)or ‘Wild men’ [To the - crossed out] South over the coast range and between it, the Lower Snowy Riverand the sea, that is the present County of Croagingoling their neighbours were a wild jungle tribe, few in number, the Bidwell-mitung, the last of [?whome?] only “came in” and became civilized somewhere about 1870.In the south East are the Coast Murring and to the East were tribes of the group to which the Braidwood tribe belonged. Their northern neighbours were the Wolgal.

[Left margin note](1) Bra - male or man yirak or jirak - anger, thus yirakal loän = an angry white man

The class system of the Ngarego/Ngarigo was as follows:-

[Table of two columns]

[Row 1][Column 1 heading] ClassesMerŭngEaglehawk

Colmun 2 heading] Totems[Belleh Belleb?] - LyrebirdNadjabajan - Bat[Būlemba] - Flying squirrel Mundarŭng - [Tuan?]Namŭng - Black snake Mŭlan or Mŭnja - a fish Bŭt-[ttie?]-wark - Mopoke Kau-ŭnga - Balck opossum [Wa-at?] - Red wallaby

[Row 2][Column 1 heading] ClassesYŭk-em-brŭkcrow

[Column 2 heading] TotemsBra-a-gar - Small hawk Tehuteba - Rabbit rat Bowa - Flying squirrel next in size to Bulemba Bŭr-rū - Kangaroo Beri-bong - Emu Bŭdalūk - Lace lizardKūa-i-ūr - Native Companion Kau-au - Porcupine Ū-lūn-bau - sleeping lizard

[Line under table]

The law of marriage was that Merūng married Yŭk-em-brŭk and visce versa as to the totems.

[Left margin note] Wiejal

To the north of the Ngarejo was the Wolgal tribe whose country according an old man who belonged to it and who came from the Hume River Hume River/Murray River somewhere between Tom Groggin and Cudjewa. The fixed the boundaries approximately as [??] Junction of the Walarigari River and the River Murray; - Tumberumba - Adelong - Tumut - Gundagai - Lambing Flat - Yass - Queanbeyan - Cooma - [Gibs?] Hole - Kiandra - Thelbingun Mt - and thence around the Indi River near Tom Groggin.

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[Left margin note]The Dieri the [??] [??] [??] xx p 34

The Kunandaburi [underlined] matera [linked to]Kūlbara - emuKani - Frilled lizardWiripira - Kangaroo rat [Mŭrŭthera?] - opossumKokola - Bandicoot Korinya - A small wallaby Konmora - [Brown?] snake [Kogrūla?] - Speckled brown snake

Yůngo[linked to]Kūntara - Native [??] Jaldra - kangaroo Jūragŭrū - Iguana Jiti - Dog Wogarachi - crow Kogūnya - Blue crow Warangūni - Carpet snake Orikomatu - Frog

These classes and totems are called "gaura".

[line across page]

Mr Hogwarth has given me a list showing how these totems intermarry in the Yandairunya, which is as follows:-

1. Kurara - marries with Kuraru, Arkaba, Naranati [underlined], Wakabo2. [Jautani?] - marries with Thalka, Arkaba [underlined] 3. Kopri - marries with Kokala 4. Kadui - marries with Kokala 5. Mudla -marries with Kuraru 6. Wadnamura - marries with [Wanbura? or Waubura?] - Upala [underliined], wakalo [underlined] 7. Wurdigi - marries with Warawati 8. Kurdmuri - marries with Thalka 9. Upala - marries with Wadnamura 10. Wakalo - marries with Wadnamura, Kurara [underlined] 11. Arkaba - marries with Tautani - Kurara [underlined] 12. Thalka - marries with Tautani - Kuramura [underlined] 13. Kokola - marries with Kadui - [Kabri?] [underlined] 14. Warawati - marries with Kurara, Kuramura [underlined] 15. Kuraru - marries with [Mudla? or Muola?], [underlined] Kurara 16. Waubura - marries with Wadnamura

An inspection of the table shows that it is [ungr?ified?] as indeed Mr Hogarth [word crossed out] groups, according to the ordinary & myths [almost?] any that [married?] [??] that sisters are exchanged as wives there should be reciprocity in their marriage. In the above lists this is the case as to 2.4.6 [??] and therefore that belief is justified that it maybe so in the other totems. This same principle of reciprocity would [supply?] [certain?] other cases which I have added in italics. There is also some evidence the behaviour mirrors only into a certain group of the opposite totems, for Mr Hogarth says " Kūrara classes as a birthright to marry with the murdus Kauru, [Aukaba?]and wakalo" - but he then adds " a man of the Kurara murdu cannot however obtain all of the women of these murdus as his Peras. The number is restricted but in [??] marries is not known to me." In the section on

Last edit 6 days ago by Christine

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In the north west of Victoria, there was a large group of tribes whichI have called [applied the name of- crossed out] the Watjo [sic]-nation from the word which they use to distinguish thesmselves as "men" from other tribes. At the end of their great tribal meetings, when the people were about to depart to their homes, there was a [meeting - crossed out] assembly at the Jŭn, that is the men's council place, [at which - crossed out] where they exchanged articles which they had brought with them for that purpose.

The articles were as follows, sets of spears called [guiya - crossed out]guiyŭn-ba-jarram, or jagspear and reedspear; opossum skin rug called jirak-willi, or opossum skin; men's kilts, (bŭring-jŭn) made of the skin of the kangaroo rat goyi or padimelon (jalla-gŭr), armlets worn round the upper arm, (mirum-datjuk), wooden bowls (mitghigan) in fact all the implements, utensils ornaments and arms used by the Wotjo people.

All the great tribal meetings when the people were about to return to their respective localities there was a meeting at the Jŭn (※) (mens council place) (see p -) At this they exchanged articles that they had brought with them for the purpose.

Such for instance are the fighting - sets of spears called guiyŭn-ba-jaram, ie "jag spear and reed spear"; opossum skin rug - jūrak-ny - opossum = wille, [therefore?] wille-jūrak, mens kilts - bŭring-jŭn made of the skins of kangaroo rats - gòyi, or padymelon - jalla-gŭr - armlets - mūrŭm-dat-jŭk, wooden bowls chopped from baxteri limbs - mitchigan (a vessel) - in fact of all the implements, utensils and ornaments and arms of these aborigines.

[left hand margin]WotjoJupa jals[Mukjawarant - crossed out]

jŭn = mens kilts

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Murring tribesIn the extreme south of New South Wales there was a large [number - crossed out] aggregate of tribes (Murring tribes) who attended the same Iniation [sic] cere-monies, [coming - crossed out] from an area which may be defined by the Shoal-haven River, Braidwood, the southern part of Maneroo, and Twofold Bay. At the termination of these ceremonies, where the novices had gone into [probation -crossed out] by themselves during their turn of probation (2) and when the people were about to separate, there was held a kind of market at wich/which [people laid out - crossed out] those articles were laid out, which they had brought with them for [the purpose of - crossed out] exchange. It was held on some clear space near the camp, and A man would say "I have brought such and such things" and some other man would bargain for them. A complete set of arti articles was, one ngulia or belt of opossum fur string, four burrian or mens kilts, one gumbrun or bone nosepeg, and a co complete set of corroborre ornaments. it was the rule that a complete set went together. Weapons might be given in exchange and a complete set of these was, [two hands that is - crossed out] ten fighting boomerangs, being the straight going ones, )warangun), the same number of grasstree spears (gumma), one of each kind of shield, namely the bembata used for stopping spears, and the millidu used for club fighting. One club, (gūgerŭng) or bundi, and one spear thrower, (woomera).

The women also engaged in this trade, exchanging opossum rugs, bags, digging sticks (tuali) &ct.

Not only wre [sic] these things bartered, but presents were made to friends, and to the head men by the other men. The women gave things also to the wives of the headmen. A headman who was held in great consi-deration might have as many things given to him, as he could well carry away.

Not only were articles which the people made themselves bartered, but but also things which had some special value, and had been brought perhaps from a distant tribe. Such as insta instance was told me by my informants, in speaking of these things. At one of their meetings, many years ago an ancient shield was bartered for, which had been brought originally from the upper waters of the Murrumbidgee River. It was greatly valued because as my informant said "it had won many fights".

There are the few instances which I find among my notes and they open up a line of enquiry which is well worth following out where the native tribe are still in their more primitive conditions. In Victoria, in a great part of NSW ie the older settled district of Queensland & in S.A. South ofLake Eyre it is at present probably quite too late to

[Note in left side margin](2) see Ceremonies ofInitiationAWHJAI 1884

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four burrian or men's kilts, one gumbrun or bone nosepeg, and a co [sic]complete set of corroborree ornaments. It was the rule that a complete set went together. Weapons might be given in exchange and a completee set of these was, [two hands that is - crossed out] ten fighting boomerangs, being the straight going ones, (warangun), the same number of grasstree spears (gumma), one of each kind of shield, namely the bembata used for stopping spears, and the millidu used for club fighting. One club, gūgerŭng) or (bundi), and one spear thrower, (woomera).

The women also engaged in this trade, exchanging opossum rugs, bags, digging sticks (tuali) &ct.

Not only wre [sic] these things bartered, but presents were made to friends, and to the head men by the other men. The women gave things also to the wives of the headmen. A headman who [had - crossed out] was held in great consi-deration might have as many things given to him, as he could well carry away.

Not only were [things - crossed out] articles which the people made themselves bartered, but but [sic] also things which had some special value,

[Next text handwritten][Left hand side] YuinAt these barter- meetings people give presents to their Gommeras. Some of them had big loads of things to carry away:- the women also would give presents to [his wife - crossed out] theGommera's wife such as yamsticks, bags and such like.

At one of these markets I remember seeing a shield brought, a shield that had won many battles. It [was - crossed out][sent - crossed out] came from the Murrumbidgee and it was exchanged awayand went on its travels. Ienben

Lake Eyre it is at present probably quiteobtain much bearing on this question. But where it is possible to do so enquiries will I am convinced be repaid by most interesting information of great [Ethn- crossed out] Anthropologicalvalue

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[left hand colum]

King Charley|Burra eel|Wife Wadhan (opossum)|child Burra

[right hand column]

Nurranbah|Noyang Eel|wife Billing Salmon|Noyang

I give these instances just as Harry gave themat the same time the rest say they acknowledgenothing but Yarrang & Djeetgang. Do you thinkthis Y & D are the two divisions havingother divisions as the Macquara + Kilparraeven the animals are divided into totemsand a man though he was a Macquaracould be a [Kawellarru?] ora Kilparra could a Kangaroo not I shouldbe inclined to think so. Of course Billy the Bullreally does not know much about these matters.though he does insist there are only the twodivisions and that all men are Yarrangand all women Djeetgang.I had a long talk with Colin Hood as toidea of a Supreme Being and he tells mehis name of their God is Bingyal andthat they call him father & brother

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Tatathi Initiations. 2

the boys.

That evening or the next evening the men tookthe boys back to the camp to show them to theirmothers. The women stood in a row. All the men came up in a crowd with the boys hidden in theirmidst. A fire had been lighted of green boughsand on this the boys stood covered by a rug, and each put his fingers into his nostrils to prevent himselfbeing smothered. Then each ngierep took his boyand placed him in front of his mother, so that she couldsee him, and then immediately drew him back into the crowd. All the boys having been thus shown, themen took them away to the bush where the boysremained for five weeks with all the young men, whotook care of them, instructed them, amused them, and fed them (with water and grubs). After this the boys still remained away for a time and were onlyallowed to eat the males of opossums.

This should follow the Wiradjuri ceremonies and addthis.

This account of the initiations of the Tatati, Wati Wati& Litchi Litchi raises this particular type of ceremoniesacross [the - crossed out] New South Wales from Sydney to near Wentworth.

It appears to have been peculiar to tribes of NSW but to have been participated in by the [River - crossed out] Victorian tribes onthe south side of the Murray River - that is among the northern tribes of the Wotjo nation - and the tribeswhich farther up the Murray River were situated between it and theKulin tribes.

Umbara the tribal bard of the Yuin in speaking to meof the ceremonies of the tribe (see p-) These go all the waydown the Murray River on this side (stretching out his right hand) but on that side - stretching on the left - there is nothing.

From what I shall now say of the ceremonies of the Victorian tribes - Wotjoballuk and Kulin - my old friend Umbara was [?informant?] and [??] for he had been down that river as far as [??]

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[??] Yebai got Budjan Yum-gai= Mallee Hen Giramul willi = opossum Burimul = Fly Buragin or ngurru = English bee or native bee malias - Eaglehawk Wumbi = Gunir= Paddymelon [in side column - wiramurin = codfish]

= narrung = Bloodsucker Kagan=crow Muri = Biringun= Red kangaroo Dulin = small Iguana Wunga-galan = little Emu 12 months old = big emu

Kubbi = Bortharung = Flying Squirrel guro = bushrat lone and in a mob Bibija = Chicken Hawk

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M.

M. Murri- Dutin F. Kubbi-Boodarung

Billy - Muri+ Birigun F Yebai = Giramulvilli

M. Woombi-Wagan F. Woombi-Wagan F. Kubbi-Guro M. Kubbi-guro

[?Yai?] [?Mon?] Kumbi Kalbi

ask Bundur Tom about Budjan manige [sic - probably munjie]

Last edit about 2 years ago by ALourie

XM226_ICDMS_lowres Howitt to Andrew Lang 1 September 1902

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classes. "This is manifest from the fact ..... that they subdividethose classes into two non-intermarrying triplets," (Emu, Bandicoot,Black Snake, --- Kangaroo, Opossum, and Iguana.) (*) Now certainlythese totem groups are within the two [classes - crossed out] phratries, but they need not belater subdivisions of the two [classes- crossed out] phratries, made for no conceivable reason.No legislators can have made totem groups, by splitting any kind ofcommunity into sets and by giving each set a name from a plant, animal,or other object. Nor do we see why groups which may have split spon-taneously off the old groups should take new totem names. The totemnames, however they came. "came otherwise."

I suggest, therefore, that totem names and totem groups arosefirst, and that they became exogamous in the manner already stated.First of all, each small local group, with the exogamous tendencieswhich we have mentioned as probable, accepted a totem name. It was nowthe Emu, or Opossum, or Kangaroo, or Black Snake local group. But, whenexogamy became sterotyped, in the way already indicated, each local totem group, say Emu, came to consist, through exogmay, of persons who, bymaternal descent, were Bandicots, Opossums, Black Snakes, Bats, Rats Cats,and so forth. By totem law, as it now exists, persons of different to-tems in the group, the Emu local group, might have intermarried. But,after all, they were all Emus, and of the Emu local group. This fact,with their membership of the same hearth, may have carried a scrupleas to intermarrying. If they did not, they has to raid other lo-cal groups for wives, ( that is, if these groups were hostile, and would

(*) Kamilaroi and Kurnai, pp. 33-34

[written in left side margin]in this case the very own authors deny thatthis is thinkable

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XM263_ICDMS_lowres James C Muirhead to Howitt 17 October 1882

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Mallera- Kingals Mallera Banbe [?Wuhers?] Wungo [?Wuha? obu]opossum Forest Kangaroo Emu Bk Duckporcupine Ringtail possum carpet snake carpet snakeEaglehawk Iguana Large mayhenPlain Turkey WollarooEmu

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CircularPlease to mark those which are the totem names ofpeople thus +

Name of object class SubclassNative Dog Mallera BanbeBlack headed snake Mallera Kurgila+ Forest Kangaroo Mallera BanbeRock Kangaroo Woothera ObooForest Wallaby Mallera BanbeRock Wallaby Woothera ObooKangaroo Rat Mallera Banbe+Opossum Mallera Kurgila+ Ringtail opossum Mallera BanbeFlying Squirrel Woothera ObooBush rat Mallera BanbeFlying Fox+ Porcupine Mallera Kingila+ Emu Woothera Wongoo+ Eaglehawk Mallera KurgilaKite Woothera WongooSparrowhawk Woothera WongooQuail Woothera Wongoo+ Black Duck Woothera Oboo+ Plain turkey Mallera KangilaScrub turkey Woothera WongooBat Mallera BanbeBlack bream Mallera BanbeEel Woothera ObooJew fish Mallera KurgilaTortoise Mallera KurgilaCrayfish Woothera Oboo+Carpet snake Woothera BanbeTree snake (green) Mallera BanbeBrown snake Mallera KurgilaDiamond snake Mallera KurgilaWater snake Mallera Banbe

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16DālebŭraEnglish Englishman Murraynga Paddy Melon Yagounyawoman Wurringo Kangaroo Rat WypaHead Yalley Opossum CuttaraHair of head Yalley wooroo Emu GoreberryEye Jimm Cockatoo LeegerryNose Ngoui Egg LandoTongue Gogounya Duck CoutaburraEar Munga Turkey PurcummoHand Pigeon PounwallyThumb Punggueran Snake MoondaFoot Dinna Iguana PieburraBlood Yerkoura Fish CooyonBone Goongoona Black Cockatoo CarangullaFire Paree Eaglehawk WooleyberryWater Cummo Wild Dog CobburaSun Currie Native Cat ChowwanaMoon Cackurra Devil Yerbie (2)My Natounda Gum tree LanderolaThy Yinounda Blood wood tree CambounaHis Noungounda [?Beauhined?] TyerrinaMy foot Natounda Dinna Cydia Woodaryone Wangurrou Thunder KoroTwo Booleroo Lightning PilmunoThree Courberry (1) Fishing net WitchuroMore or many Walbundumina Flax more (3)good Larralee Currajong PianaBad Wyco ditto Bark Uana (3)Deception - Gammon Lygirry Corroberie Mambo (4)Husband Puncheman Boomerang CoulgaWife Perricunya Barbed spear BultaChild Wangourou Nulla Nulla MirrouBoy Walburra Shield Courmurriegirl Warcanna Stone tomahawk CouchaWiseman, Wizard Booliberry Throwing stick for spear CoulbinnaKangaroo Tegurra Reed spear Mourchawhite wood tree Moomberoo (5) Flint knife Paypo[ditto] [ditto] gum Tongega (6) Parma [?Psalgoulla?]

Last edit 5 months ago by ALourie

tip70-10-37-3 Rev Stahle

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In war all spoils were brought to him, who dividedthem among his men after having reserved thebest for himself. The men of the tribe were underan obligation to provide the head man with foodand to make all kinds of presents to him suchas Kangaroo and opossum rugs, stone tomahawksspears, flint knives +c.The Gournditch Mera did not in war eat anypart of the slain.Although there was no individual property in landsuch things as were left by the deceased were dividedamong his nearest relatives.Game killed in the chase was divided amongstthose present. [crossed out - The hunter gave] Supposing a Kangarooto have been killed, the hunter gave one hindleg and the breast to his most esteemed friendand kept the other hind leg himself. Theremainder was divided among the other companions.There was however no rule as to the distributionof cooked food in the camp, for all eat together - that is each family did so. Each wifewas however obliged to sit beside her own husbandnor near any other man unless her husbandsate between them. Each family camped byitself.The Gournditch Mera believed that the spiritsof the deceased father or grandfather occasionallyvisited the male descendants in dreamsand imparted to them charms (songs) againstdisease or against witchcraft.There were also among them persons who

[in side margin]Buckley the man who lived 32 years with the blacks at Port Phillip says in his narrative: p 57They have a notion that theworld is supported byprops, which are in the charge of a man who livesat the farthest end of the earth. They were dreadfullyalarmed on one occasionby news passed from tribeto tribe, that unless theycould send him a supplyof tomahawks for cuttingsome more props with,and some more rope to tie them with, the earthwould go by the sunand all kinds be smothered.

Have the Mera any knowledge of this?Their[crossed out - head m] chief might itseems to me have been such a man as wouldsend the message - callingfor tribute.

Last edit 2 months ago by ALourie

tip70-10-41-3 Chatfield to Fison 26/7/1874

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I take a great interest. theBlacks inhabitong this part ofthe district i. e. the Cape Riverand the desert adjacent haveclass names (four) and the [?child?]is of the Mothers family as statedby you each family hasa distinguishing animal infact a sort of rude Heraldryviz Utheroo Emu or Carpet snakeMulleroo IguanaYungaroo opossumGoorjilla Kangaroo or Scrub Turkeyand are known by [?each?]

Last edit over 1 year ago by ALourie

tip70-10-41-8 Alexander to Fison 13/10/1874

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Tribe Bookamba "Warrego River Blacks"Queensland10/10/74

No 1 (M) Tom[ditto] 2 F wife Kitty[ditto]3 (M) BillyNo 4 (F) Kitty

No 1 Marries No 2 their issue are Nos 3 and 4

"Class name" and "Totems" of above

Class names TotemsNo 1 Kumbo KangarooNo 2 Matha (Murri) opossumNo 3 Kubo doNo 4 Kubotha do

The children takes the "Totems" of their Mothers andtheir mother's class names regulates that of its ownthe child of an Ipai mother would take her "Totem"and its class name would be Kumbo. The child ofa Matha (Murri) mother its class name would be Kubi and so on. As far as I can understand the childrenare of the mother Tribe and the "Totems" regulates themarriages and is the only restriction of intersexual selectionP.T.O

Last edit 7 months ago by ALourie
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A Black with the "Totem" of "opossum"cannot marry a snake, Hawk, scrub turkey,paddy mellon, IguanaA Black with the "Totem" of Kangaroo cannot marryan Emu, Brown Snake, Tongo (wallaby) or Red SnakeA Black with the totem of Emu cannot marrya Kangaroo (Narrgo) Brown Kangaroo (Goorilla) Brown Snake

P.S.My informant tell [sic] me the reason why a manwith the totem of opossum cannot marry a "Gin" xof the Totem of snake, Hawk, Scrub Turkey, +c +c isthat they are "close up Brothers" (and the sameholds good right thro) and that its wrong to marryand if they did so marry the Gins would betaken away from them.

x Gin (Woman) M. Alexander

Last edit 7 months ago by ALourie
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Tribe "Bookamba" "Warrego River Blacks"Queensland10/10/74

No 1 (M) Jacky[ditto] 2 (F) wife Jenny[ditto] 3 (M) Tommy[ditto] 4 (F) Malj x x from Brisbane[ditto] 5 (M) Billy[ditto] 6 (M) Jacky[ditto] 7 (F) Mary[ditto] 8 (M) Willie[ditto] 9 (M) Johny [ditto] 10 (F) Minie

No 1 Marries No 2 their issue are Nos 3, 6, 7, and 10No 3 marries No 4 their issue is 5 No 7 marries No 8 their issueis No 9. No 8 calls No 1 "Kunahgilla" (uncle) No 8 calls No 2"Tombero" (aunt) (intended for Father + Mother in Law)

Classnames and Totems of aboveClassnames Totems Classnames TotemsNo 1 Kubo Snake 6 Kumbo KangarooNo 2 Ipai Kangaroo 7 do doNo 3 Kumbo do 8 Murri opossumNo 4 Matha Murri scrub turkey (wogoon) 9 Ipai KangarooNo 5 Kubo do do do 10 Kumbo do

Last edit 5 months ago by ALourie

XM720_ICDMS_lowres

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2The points of his message and the number of localgroups he was to call together were impressed upon his memory,or perhaps better his memory was aided to retain themby a tally [crossed out - with the] of so many thongs of a mans kilt (1)which he carried with him. In addition to the Bull roarerhe also carried wrapped up in a skin of one of [?those?] animalsa belt made of opossum fur cord (2) armbands of Ringtailopossum pelt (3) and a forehead band (4). When he arrivedat the place where the Gommera was to whom he was sent, he opened his bundle in the Council place - the Wirii-wirii-than (5)and then delivered his [crossed out - speech] message exhibiting to the Gommera theBullroarer, and the above article. Holding the kilt in onehand he would take the strands [?serialim?] and say "this tail is for so and so, naming a gommera, and so on untilhe had named all the gommeras of the local groups he hadto assemble. The Gommera then announced the messageto the men at the council place and after considerationfixed the time when he and his men would start for theKuringal place.

[crossed out - It was af] I may at this place mention the steps whichwere taken to all the Kuringal at which I was present.I had known for many years a medicine man of the Wolgal tribe (p -) one Yibai- Malian (Eaglehawk) and through him became acquainted with one of the principal[crossed out - head men] Gommeras of the coast tribe. On severaloccasions I discussed the Initiation Ceremonie [sic] with Yibai-Malian and he found that I knew about them and asI produced to his surprise several bullroarers and couldexplain their meaning he came to consider me asone of the initiated and as such spoke freely andunreservedly of the othermore forbidden topics.

[footnotes at the bottom of the page](1) Bŭrain, made of the skin of a [crossed out - Ka Wallaby] Rabbit rat (ngabŭn)or Kangaroo Rat (gūragūn), Wallaby, Native cat, cut into[crossed out - sta] strands about half an inch in width the full length of the animal and still attached by a width of about an inch at the upperend. [crossed out - It] One has fasted in front and one behind the person beingpendent from the belt of possum fur string by the outermost strand being tucked under the belt in each side.(2) ŭnda or Ngorlia (3) (4) Kilŭlbŭga (5) Wirri - wirri meanshasten, hurry up, be quick. Than= speech. The same word as [crossed out - GippslandThana in the language of Gippsland as mŭk-thang or excellent speech of theBrabralŭng , Thang-quai or Broad speech of the Krautūn Kurnai.

Last edit about 2 months ago by ALourie
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