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Wilson, in which he criticized the organization and rejected the offer to serve as its representative.
Garnet wrote that Douglass’s letter was nothing more than “glaring fallacies and erroneous state-
ments” and that Douglass alone stood in opposition to the association. Douglass responded to Garnet
on 4 October 1865, writing that it was unfair to make him appear “as if opposed to those highest
interests of our common race.” He emphasized that he did not criticize the organization itself but only
its proposed plan to establish a combined monument and school. Both letters were printed in the New
York Weekly Anglo-African, making this argument between Garnet and Douglass public. New York
Weekly Anglo-African, 16 September, 21 October 1865.

3. Gerrit Smith sent a long letter to both William Lloyd Garrison and Wendell Phillips on
12 September 1865, in which he discussed the necessity of securing black suffrage and equality dur-
ing Reconstruction. Smith argued that the nation must not ignore the freedman any longer and “shut
him out from the enjoyment of political and social rights.” Douglass, who also continued to fight for
the ballot, supported Smith’s argument. This letter was published as a circular and was also printed in
the Liberator. Printed Ephemera Collection Portfolio 126, Folder 15b, DLC; Lib., 22 September 1865.

4. On 22 September 1865 in Avondale, Pennsylvania, Douglass attended the celebration of the
third anniversary of the issuing of the Emancipation Proclamation. He was the main speaker at the
event, attended by more than 20,000 people. While he claimed to have made speeches in Vermont
during this time, a confirmation of his activities in that state cannot be made. New York Weekly
, 14 October 1865.

5. On 29 September 1865, Douglass delivered the dedicatory address for the Douglass Insti-
tute on Lexington Street in Baltimore, Maryland. Six hundred blacks and two hundred whites heard
Douglass praise the new endeavor for the moral and intellectual uplift of the city’s African American
youth. Douglass Papers, ser. 1, 4:86-96.

6. The Baltimore American and Commercial Advertiser was the oldest newspaper in Maryland.
It was first published by Alexander Martin, a native of Boston, on 14 May 1799. The American was a
firm ally of the Whig party and became prominently identified with the Union cause and the Republi-
can party. The American carried a report of Douglass’s speech in its 30 September 165 issue. Scharf,
History of Baltimore, 609.

7. Worthington Garrettson Snethen (c. 1805-?) was an attorney and journalist born in Maryland.
He published the New Orleans Morning Advertiser (1842), edited the Baltimore Patriot (1859-60),
and served as a correspondent for the New York Tribune and the Boston Commonwealth. In addition,
Snethen compiled The Black Code of the District of Columbia (1848) and practiced law in Wash-
ington, New York, and Baltimore for over two decades. A War Democrat, he supported Frémont for
president in 1864 and served as chairman of the Sub-National Committee of the Radical Democracy
for Maryland, Delaware, and West Virginia. Snethen both reported on and spoke at the inauguration
of the Douglass Institute. Frederick (Md.) Examiner, 15 June 1864; Lib., 13 October 1865; Douglass
, ser. 1, 4:86; Andrew Johnson, The Papers of Andrew Johnson, eds., LeRoy P. Graf, Ralph W.
Haskins, and Paul H. Bergeron, 16 vols. (Knoxville, Tenn., 1967-2000), 5:221n, 7:434n.

8. John Needles (1786-1878) was a Baltimore Quaker and cabinetmaker. Benjamin Lundy re-
cruited him to the abolitionist movement in 1831. Merrill and Ruchames, Garrison Letters, 5:207.

9. Born in Massachusetts, Henry Stockbridge (1822—96) graduated from Amherst College and
then moved to Baltimore to practice law. A strong unionist during the Civil War, Stockbridge was
elected to the Maryland state legislature and sponsored the legislation for a constitutional conven-
tion to abolish slavery in that state. For the remainder of his life, Stockbridge remained an active
Republican in state and national politics. Frederick Clifton Pierce, ed., Field Genealogy: Being the
Record of All the Field Family in America Whose Ancestors were in this Country prior to 1700
2 vols. (Chicago, 1901), 1:165.

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