54 JAMES MONROE WHITFIELD TO DOUGLASS, 15 NOVEMBER 1853
movements. He organized the first state convention for blacks in Ohio in 1844, and was elected vice
president and appointed to the central committee during Ohio’s State Colored Convention held in
Cleveland on 11 September 1852. Jenkins was a delegate from Ohio at the Colored National Conven-
tion held in Rochester in July 1853, and was appointed to its finance committee. During the Civil War,
he served as a recruiting agent at Camp Delaware. Jenkins was elected vice president of the Equal
Rights League Convention held on 21 September 1865 in Cleveland and was appointed sergeant at
arms for the 1867 State Convention of Colored People in Columbus. 1870 U.S. Census, Ohio, Frank-
lin County, 55; FDP, 15 September 1843, 1 October 1852, 20 May, 15 July 1853; Lib., 21 July 1865;
Daily Cleveland Herald, 25 July 1863, 21 September 1865; Ripley (Ohio) Bee, 10 July 1867; New
York Age, 16 January 1892; Ohio State Journal, 25 February 1870; Delany, Condition, Elevation,
Emigration, and Destiny of the Colored People, 118; Ripley, Black Abolitionist Papers, 4:73.
22. The Aliened American was published and edited by William Howard Day in Cleveland,
Ohio, from 1853 to 1854. It was created at the National Emigration Convention as a rival to Frederick
Douglass’ Paper. The paper, which served as the official mouthpiece of both the Ohio State Anti-
Slavery Society and the emigration movement, met with much criticism and ceased publication when
it failed to obtain adequate funding. Henry Louis Gates, Jr., and Evelyn Brooks Higginbotham, eds.,
African American Lives (New York, 2004), 219; Todd Mealy, Aliened American: A Biography of Wil-
liam Howard Day, 2 vols. (Baltimore, 2010), 1:204-05, 209, 224; Levine, Politics of Representative
Identity, 97; Rhodes, Mary Ann Shadd Cary, 76, 114.
23. Founded in 1835, the New York Herald was owned and edited by James Gordon Bennett. In
1850 the newspaper editorially supported the Whig party, but had a reputation for balanced reporting
of news events. Richard Kluger and Phyllis Kluger, The Paper: The Life and Death of the “New York
Herald Tribune” (New York, 1986), 44-46, 63-64.
24. No issue of the Aliened American with Jenkins’s statement has survived.
25. At the time J. M. Whitfield penned his letter to Douglass, plans were being made to hold
the National Emigration Convention in Cleveland. The event eventually took place on 24-26 Au-
gust 1854, with William C. Munroe presiding. Proceedings of the convention were later published.
Proceedings of the National Emigration Convention of Colored People, 1854, 9; FDP, 18 November
26. Lord Byron, Childe Harold’s Pilgrimage (1818), canto 2, stanza 76; George Gordon Lord
Byron, The Complete Poetical Works of Lord Byron, ed. Jerome J. McGann and Barry Weller, 7 vols.
(New York, 1980-93), 2:105.
27. Phil. 2:12.
MARTIN ROBINSON DELANY TO FREDERICK DOUGLASS
Pittsburgh, [Pa.] 22 Nov[ember] 1853.
FREDERICK DOUGLASS, ESQ. :—
According to the note of explanation some time since received from you,1
I am satisfied to exonerate you from any design at disparagement, in the
publication of the private note from me in connection with the first issue
of the Call for a National Emigration Convention.2 This I should have, in
justice to you, published sooner, but that you were absent from home some
time after I received your note; and the EDITOR3 of the Aliened American
will please do me the favor to publish so much of my note as pertains to
Y7271-Douglass_9780300218305.indb 54 1/26/18 9:41 AM
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