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HISTORICAL ANNOTATION 303

ority of other races was innate or predestined; instead he suggested it resulted from
the effects of decadent, but freely chosen, actions by members of the subordinate
race. Thomas N. Brown, The Life and Times of Hugh Miller (New York, 1858);
C. Peter Ripley, ed., The Black Abolitionist Papers, 5 vols. (Chapel Hill, 1985-
92), 2: 509n.
8.14/xviii.27 "first-found Ammonite,"] A quote from Hugh Miller's An Auto-
biography: "In a nodular mass of bluish-gray limestone . . . I laid open my first
found ammonite." An ammonite is a fossil whorled chambered shell of prehistoric
squids or octopuses, so called because they resemble the horn upon the ancient
statues of Jupiter Ammon, the Libyan god. Ebenezer Cobham Brewer, ed., Brew-
er's Dictionary of Phrase & Fable
, 15th ed. (New York, 1995), 30.
8.17–18/xviii.31 Col. Lloyd's plantation] Settled by Edward Lloyd I in 1658,
Wye House, the home plantation of the Lloyds, was situated on a peninsula formed
by the Wye River on the north and the Miles River on the south. By 1790 Edward
Lloyd IV owned 11,884 acres in the region. The mansion house to which Douglass
refers was built in 1784 and overlooks Lloyd's Cove on the Wye River. Aaron An-
thony and his family lived in the "Captain's House," a brick outbuilding near the
mansion. Douglass lived at Anthony's home at Wye House from August 1824 to
March 1826. H[enry] Chandlee Forman, Old Buildings, Gardens, and Furniture in
Tidewater Maryland
(Cambridge, Md., 1967), 51–80; Hulbert Footner, Rivers of
the Eastern Shore: Seventeen Maryland Rivers
(New York, 1944), 269–93; Dick-
son J. Preston, Young Frederick Douglass: The Maryland Years (Baltimore, 1980),
37–40, 199.
9.22/xx.3–4 Henry BibbJ Henry Bibb (1815–54), born a slave in Shelby
County, Kentucky, escaped in 1837, only to be recaptured in his unsuccessful at-
tempt to rescue his wife and child. By 1842 he had escaped once again and settled
in Detroit, Michigan, his residence until 1850. Immediately plunging into political
and antislavery work, Bibb was hired as a lecturer by the Michigan Anti-Slavery
Society and spoke on behalf of Liberty party candidates. Although Bibb planned to
visit England in 1848, he was advised against making such a tour because the big-
amous implications of his marriage to a free woman, Mary E. Miles, might limit his
antislavery appeal. He toured the East in 1849, at one point acting as an agent for
the North Star, and published his Narrative of the Life and Adventures of Henry
Bibb
. . . (1849). After the passage of the 1850 Fugitive Slave Law, Bibb settled in
Windsor, Canada West, where he published the Voice of the Fugitive (1851–53). In
January 1852 the Refugee Home Society was founded to assist American blacks to
migrate to Canada and chose Bibb as a trustee. Bibb was also active in the Anti-
Slavery Society of Canada, serving as one of its vice-presidents in 1852. NS, 24
March 1848; Henry Bibb, "Narrative of the Life and Adventures of Henry Bibb,''
in Puttin' On Ole Massa, ed. Gilbert Osofsky (New York, 1969), 64, 74–82, 154–
64; William H. Pease and Jane H. Pease, Black Utopia: Negro Communal Experi-
ments in America
(Madison, Wisc., 1963), 109–22; Floyd J. Miller, The Search for

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