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HISTORICAL ANNOTATION

ward, England continued to export grain and animal products from Ireland. Gov-
ernment relief efforts were, on the whole, too little and too late. They consisted of
the importation of Indian corn from the United States as a basic food source, employment of the poor through public works, the building of workhouses, and the es-
tablishment of soup kitchens and fever hospitals. Some private charity was helpful
at a local level, with the Quakers as leading contributors. The most noticeable ef-
fect of the famine was the loss of population. From 1841 to 1851 Ireland lost two
million people, many of them through massive emigration. From 1846 to 1851,
20,000 died from starvation and 339,000 from disease. From 31 August 1845 to 6
January 1846, Frederick Douglass visited Dublin, Cork, Limerick, and Belfast
while on an abolitionist speaking tour of Ireland, Edward Norman, A History of
Modern Ireland (London, 1971), 108-17; Noel Kissane, The Irish Famine: A Doc-
umentary History (Dublin, 1995), 27, 46-48, 75, 107-08, 123: Douglass Papers,
ser. 1, 1: xcvi-xcvii.


57.30-33/98, 16-19 "I am ... O yea!" Douglass also recalled this song in his

58.4-23/99, 1-23 "I did ... heart." This passage, concluding with a quota-
Narrative, William Cowper, The Poems of William Cowper, ed. J.C. Bailey (Lon-
don, 1905), 267; Douglass Papers, ser. 2. 1: 20-21.

58.31-32/ 100.3 slaves on board of the "Pearl" In mid-April 1848 seventy-
on board the schooner Pearl, a small coasting vessel manned by Captain Edward
Sayres and Chester English, a sailor and cook. Directing the attempted escape was
supercargo Daniel Drayton of Philadelphia, himself a seasoned captain in the
coasting trade who had collaborated in previous slave rescues. Arriving in Washington
on 13 April, the Pearl surreptitiously took the black fugitives on board two
nights later and started down the Potomac, only to be halted hy high winds at the
entrance to Chesapeake Bay. Alarmed slaveholders, aided by a Negro informant,
gave pursuit and captured the anchored vessel in the predawn hours of 17 April.
The following morning the bound and shackled prisoners were returned to Wash-
ington. An angry mob gathered at the District of Columbia jail threatening to lynch
Drayton and Sayres, while a second mob attacked the office of the National Era,
Gamaliel Bailey's antislavery newspaper. The Pearl incident generated consider-
able sympathy and indignation in abolitionist circles, yet public outcries failed to
save either the slaves or their white rescuers from a harsh fate. Most of the Pearl
fugitives were sold south. Chester English received immunity from prosecution in
exchange for his testimony. After lengthy court battles in which each was con-
victed on numerous counts of assisting in the escape of slaves, Drayton and Sayres
were sentenced to heavy fines and imprisonment in the Washington jail before receiving a presidential pardon from Millard Fillmore in 1852, Lib., 21, 28 April, 5
May 1848; NS, 28 April, 5 May, 23 June 1848: FDP, 10 September 1852; Daniel

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