Autobiographical Writings, Volume 2, My Bondage and My Freedom

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Textual Introduction-Textual Notes-Emendations-Hyphenations-Collation

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TEXTUAL INTRODUCTION

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the "Eighteenth Thousand." C's title page also includes an altered name for the puhlisher: "Miller, Orton & Mulligan" became "'Miller, Orton & Co." 12 The only deliberate change in the remainder of the front matter was the intraprinting deletion in A of the date (23 May 1855) of James McCune Smith's introduction. An early copy of A (A 1) includes (at the end of the introduction) the date alongside "New York" with Smith's name printed at the end of the same line. The date is missing in later copies of A as well as in B and C. In the main text only one minor substantive alteration and three alterations in accidentals were made, each of which merely corrects a mistake or oversight by a compositor. In addition to the minor textual changes, two pages containing engravings described by the publisher as "authentic illustrations exhibiting Freedom and Slavery in contrast"13 were deleted in B and C. The title page (but neither the table of contents nor the numbering of chapters) indicates that Bondage and Freedom is divided into two parts, corresponding to the two concepts in the book's title ("Part I. -- Life as a Slave, Part II. -- Life as a Freeman."). The first part, chapters one through twenty-one, carries the running head "Life as a Slave" on each verso page: to symbolize the theme. A has five engravings depicting scenes from slavery facing the title page of charter one. Charters twenty-two through twenty-five complete the scheme with "Life as a Freeman" as a running head on the verso pages and five engravings depicting the blessings of freedom on the page facing the title page of chapter twenty-two. The end matter includes two sections: (1) a fifty-seven page appendix containing extracts from seven of Douglass's antislavery lectures and the letter that he had written from England in 1848 to Thomas Auld, his former master, on the tenth anniversary of his escape from Baltimore; and (2) a set of advertisements of books published by Miller, Orton & Mulligan. In addition to making three minor spelling changes in the appendix, the publisher altered the number and content of the advertisements

12. The title pages of the three printings are nearly identical but contain a few conventional variations. The content of the 1855 title page is arrayed as follows: MY BONDAGE / AND / MY FREEDOM / Part I. -- Life as a Slave. Part II. -- Life as a Freeman. / By a principle essential to christianity, a PERSON is eternally differenced from a / THING; so that the idea of a HUMAN BEING, necessarily excludes the idea of PROPERTY / IN THAT. BEING. COLERIDGE. / NEW YORK AND AUBURN: / MILLER, ORTON & MULLIGAN. / New York: 25 Park Row.--Auburn: 107 Genesee-st. / 1855.

The 1856 title page differs from its predecessor in two respects: (1) "SEVENTEENTH THOUSAND" is added at the very top of the page with a plain bar between it and the first line of the title; and (2) 1856 is substituted for 1855 as the year of publication.

The 1857 title page alters its immediate predecessor in three ways: (1) "EIGHTEENTH THOUSAND" is substituted for "SEVENTEENTH THOUSAND" and is printed above a wavy rather than a plain bar; (2) the name of the publisher is changed from MILLER, ORTON & MULLIGAN, to MILLER, ORTON & CO.; and (3) 1857 replaces 1856 as the year of publication.

13. Norton's Literary Gazette and Publishers' Circular, 1 August 1855.

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Historical Collation

All potentially substantive alterations, whether adopted or rejected existing in authoritative printings and impressions of Bondage and Freedom are recorded in this list. Each entry consists of the page and line numbers of the Yale edition and the copy-text followed by the copy-text reading enclosed by a square bracket. The variant reading is placed on the right side of the square bracket and is followed by printing/impression symbols indicating the texts in which the variant resides. For an explanation of the printing/impression symbols. see the introduction to the Textual Notes.

22.29/36.1 Tuckanoe] Tuckahoe A2-5: 8: C 42.35/72.3 thick] hick A2-5: 8: C 153.27/269.8 were] where A2-5: 8: C 221.26/384.10 ease] at ease A2-5: 8: C 222.3/385.1 Cunningham] Conningham A2-5: 8: C 223.3 I /388.1 air] fair A2-5: 8: C

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Bibliography and Index

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Bibliography of Textual Apparatus Gerald Fulkerson

American Publisher's Circular and Literary Gazette (New York). 15 September 1855. Andrews, William L., ed. My Bondage and My Freedom. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1987. Douglass, Frederick. Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, an American Slave. In Douglass Papers, Ser. 2. vol. 1. --------. My Bondage and My Freedom. New York: Miller, Orton & Mulligan, 1855. --------. My Bondage and My Freedom. New York: Miller, Orton & Mulligan, 1856. --------. My Bondage and My Freedom. New York: Miller, Orton & Co., 1857. --------. Sclaverei und Freiheit: Autobiographie von Federick Douglass. Trans. Ottilie Assing, Hamburg: Hoffman und Campe, 1860. --------. Mes annees d'esclavage et de liberte par Frederick Douglass, marshal de Colombie (d'apres l'anglais). Trans. Catherine Valerie Boissier Gasparin, Paris: E. Plon et cie, 1883. Frederick Douglass' Paper (Rochester), 1855. Frederick Douglass Papers, DLC. Gerrit Smith Papers, NSyU Gilbert Tracy Papers, NjHi. McFeely, William S. Frederick Douglass, New York; W. W. Norton, 1991 Norton's Literary Gazette and Publishers' Circular (New York), 1 August 1855. Rochester Daily Union. 1855

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Index

A. D. Richmond and Company. 201, 205, 372 Abel, Uncle, 41, 75, 107, 400 Aberdeen, Scot, 220, 389-90 Abolition. See Emancipation Abolitionists, 47, 266, 360; bazaars, 368; blacks as, 7, 184, 299-305, 308, 336-37, 364-65, 367, 369, 371, 373, 375-76, 406, 420-23, 428, 433; books by, xiv, 281, 312-13, 405-06, 415, 419, 422; in Boston, 12, 226-28, 261, 281, 305-06, 311-12, 364, 380-81, 421; in Canada, 245, 300, 303; capital punishment opposed by, 313; churches and, 218, 278, 282, 284, 300, 304-05, 309, 311-13, 317, 373-74, 388, 390; colonization opposed by, 300, 312, 373; comeouterism and, 304, 373; contacting slaves, 93; in Cork, Ire., 391; Douglass and, 7, 200, 2035, 215-16, 272-84, 315, 408, 417-18, 420, 429; Douglass as, xxxv, 5, 203-6, 214-33, 243-44, 253-54, 375-76, 380, 382, 420-23 433; in Dublin, Ire., 391; edit fugitive slave narratives, 405; free blacks as, 203-8, 272, 300, 305, 316, 367, 370-71, 373-74; fugitive slaves and, 203-8, 300, 312, 316, 364-65, 367, 370-71, 373-75, 433; William Lloyd Garrison and, 277, 304-6, 315, 373-76, 380, 385, 417; in Great Britain, 215, 217-23, 220, 226-27, 243, 245-46, 288, 300, 302, 306, 312, 341, 370, 376-79, 381-85, 387, 393, 416, 419, 424, 427, 429; ideology of, 218, 278-84, 304, 306, 309, 311, 313, 420-21; in Indiana, 231, 396; Indians (Native American ) and, 245; in Ireland, 245, 275, 336, 391; Louis Kossuth censured by, 310; land reform and, 377; Abraham Lincoln and, 300; manumission opposed by, 216; in Maryland, 89; in Massachusetts, 199-200, 203-10, 214, 220, 226-28, 261, 281, 301, 304-6, 313, 315, 368-69, 371, 37477, 380-81, 394; meetings of, xxv, 5, 205-6, 261, 266, 305, 311, 337, 376, 394, 422, 428; Mexican war opposed by, 396; mobs attack, 231, 276, 313, 336-37, 387, 396, 415; in New England, 226, 229, 262, 305, 312, 374-76; in New Hampshire, 312, 394; in New York, 196,

272-77, 300, 304-7, 311-12, 367, 387; newspapers of, 203-4, 207, 209,276, 305-9, 313, 341, 374-76, 380, 429, 431; non-violence, 306, 312, 370, 374-75, 390; opposition to, 93, 181, 259, 272, 276, 282, 387, 418; in Pennsylvania, 305, 313, 336-37, 364; perfectionism and, 304; petition Congress, 94, 346; Wendell Philips and, 262, 305, 396; poetry of, 103-4, 349; political action and, 300, 311, 313, 315, 369, 373, 394, 396, 420-21; Presbyterians and, 300; purchase slaves' freedom, 302, 337, 341, 381, 409, 429; Quakers as, 218, 305, 353, 370, 375-77, 381-84, 389, 396; racial prejudice among, 41-42, 229-31, 251, 315, 400, 408; religious arguments of, 359; schism of, 272-77, 304-5; in Scotland, 220, 245, 38485, 388-89, 420; segregation protested by, 394-95; slave escapes and, 336-37; slave revolts and, 313, 390; slave trade and, 94, 269, 369; slaveholders attacked by, 93, 244-45, 373; Gerrit Smith and, 300, 302; songs of, 377; suppressed in South, 93, 181; temperance and, 300-301, 305, 309, 312-13, 374; Underground Railroad and, 93, 184, 309, 312; U.S. Congress and, 300; U.S. Constitution debated by, 15, 228-29, 311-13, 315, 394, 420-21, 429; Washington, D.C., and, 94, 336-37, 346; women in, 312-13, 368-69, 407; women's rights and, 301, 305, 312-13, 374. See also American Anti-Slavery Society; Emancipation; Garrisonians; Liberator (Boston); National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York); Undergound Railroad Abu Simbel, Egypt, 318 Abuse. See Slaveholders, cruelty of; Slaves, whippings of Accomac County, Va., 419 Adam, 319 Adams, Charles Francis, 231, 395-96 Adams, John, 396 Adams, John Quincy, 395-96 Adams, Louisa Catherine, 395 Adrian, 424

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Aesop's Fables. 113, 427 Africa, 26, 233; black slavery in, 255, 424; immigration to, 275, 301; religion of, 136; slaves taken from, 53, 249, 323, 334, 362; whites enslaved in, 19 African-American Zion Methodist Church (New Bedford. Mass.), 205. 375 African Civilization Society, 301, 315 African Methodist Episcopal Church, 391 African Methodist Episcopal Church, Zion, 203; abolitionists and, 374; leaders of, 302, 374; missionaries of. 302; in New Bedford, Mass., 205, 375 African slave trade, 262, 269, 362 African (Third) Christian Church (New Bedford, Mass.), 371, 373 Agency Committee, 385 Ague. See Disease, ague and fever Alabama; slave trade in, 331; slavery in, 172-73 Albany, N.Y., 17, 232, 308-9 Alcohol; slaves and, 143, 145-46; southern whites and, 21, 48, 86, 100. See also Intemperance; Temperance Aldridge, Frederick Ira, 19, 318 Alexander, George William, 218, 382, 384 Algonquins, 320 Alice Anna Street. See Aliceanna Street Aliceanna Street (Baltimore), 79. 81, 342, 363 Alisanna Street. See Aliceanna Street All Saints' Day, 385 Allegheny Mountains, 391 Allen, Stafford, 382 Allender, Joseph, 366 Allender, Tolly, 194 Alliciana Street. See Aliceanna Street All's Well That End's Well (Shakespeare), 173, 361 Amanda (sloop), 105, 349-50 American & Commercial Daily Advertiser (Baltimore), 94, 346 American and Foreign Anti-Slavery Society, 301, 304, 307 American Anti-Slavery Society; agents of, 300, 312-13. 390, 420; blacks as members, 369, 421; British support for, 305; Declaration of Sentiments, 305; disunionism and, 311; Douglass addresses, 272-77, 311; employs Douglass, 11, 305, 420-21; founded, 305; free blacks and, 300, 311; William Lloyd Garrison leads, 12, 242, 305, 375, 417; meetings of, 15,

INDEX

311; newspapers of, 208, 228, 306, 376, 431; officers of, 305-6, 369, 387; schism of, 305 American Baptist Missionary Union, 396 American Colonization Society, 275-76, 300 American Equal Rights Association, 313 American Moral Reform Association, 317 American Peace Society, 390 American Publisher's Circular (New York), 286 American Slavery As It Is: Testimony of a Thousand Witnesses (Weld), xiv American Spectator, xxxiv, 412 American Spelling Book, The (Webster), 89, 151, 343 American Temperance Union, 396 American Tract Society, 320, 396 Ammonite, 8, 303 Anderson, Sherwood, xxvi Andover, Mass., 376 Andover Theological Seminary, 375, 380, 390 Anglican Church. See Churches; Grcat Britain, churches of Anglo-African Magazine (New York), 299, 302 Angola, 334 Animals. See Farming, animals; Wildlife Annapolis, Md.; Douglass visits, 79, 342; Lloyd family and, 323, 332; as market center, 79, 330 Annapolis Stale House, 79, 342 Anne Arundel County, Md., 328 Anthony, Aaron; Thomas Auld and, 46, 77, 79, 99, 107, 324-26, 331, 341, 343, 348, 350, 401, 436; "Captain's House" and, 303; charactcr of, 47-48, 50-52, 420, 428, 436; death of, 99, 103, 321-326, 333-34, 341, 348, 437; as Douglass's master, xxxvi, 24-27, 30, 43, 47, 50, 71, 74-75, 78-79. 99, 107, 118, 320-23, 331, 400-401, 419, 435-36; Douglass's sympathy for, 47-48; Kate Emblem and, 32, 44, 46, 324, 326-27, 331; family of, xxxix, 46, 75-76, 107, 304, 322-23, 333-34, 343, 435; farms of, 24, 26, 28, 36, 43, 46, 78, 118, 32123, 326, 333-34, 400; Austin Gore and, 71; Lloyd family and, 26, 37, 43-44, 46, 303, 322-23, 338, 400; as overseer, 26, 37, 43, 400, 436; overseers of, 26, 43, 48-49, 71, 333, 436; as possible father of Douglass, 31, 47, 322-23, 436; as ship captain, 45, 322, 436; slaves of, 24-26, 31-32, 34, 36, 43, 45-52, 99, 103, 249, 321-28, 331, 333-34, 341, 348, 419-20, 435-37; wealth of, 46; at Wye House, 303, 400-401, 436

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INDEX

Anthony, Andrew J., 325 Anthony, Andrew Skinner, 46, 436; character of, 100-102, 333, 437: death of, 102. 321, 326, 437; slaves of, 99-100, 321, 324-27, 331, 333-34, 348, 427, 439 Anthony, Ann Catherine Skinner, 321-22, 32728, 333, 436 Anthony, Harriet Lucretia, xxxix, 304. 435-39 Anthony, John Planner, 321, 325, 437, 439 Anthony, Lucretia. See Auld, Lucretia Planner Anthony Anthony, Richard Lee, 46; death of, 99, 437; slaves of, 322, 324, 326-27, 331, 333, 348 Anthony, Susan B., 369 Anti-Corn Law League, 383, 385 Antiextensionism, xxiv, 396. See also Free Soil party Antisabbatarianism, 390 Anti-Slavery Society of Canada, 300, 303 Antrim, Ire., 379 Arabia, 19 Arida Nutrix, 19, 319 Arkansas, 332 Armenia, 319 Armistead, Wildon, xxii-xxiii Art of Drawing in Perspective, The (Ferguson), 314 Artisans: racism among, 176-180, 428, 433; slaves as, 37, 41, 65 Asbury, Francis, 373 Assing, Ottilie, 285, 432-34 Associate Methodist Church. See Methodist Protestant Church Astor, John Jacob, 299-300, 366 Astronomy Explained on Sir Isaac Newton's Principles (Ferguson), 314 Athens, Greece, 315, 423 Atlantic Guards, 339 Atlantic Monthly (Boston), xiv, xviii, xxii Attwood, Thomas, 383 Auburn, N. Y., 285 Augusta, Ga., 339 Augustinian monks, 385 Augustus (emperor), 424 Auld, Amanda. See Sears, Amanda Auld Auld, Arianna Amanda, See Sears, Amanda Auld Auld, Benjamin F., 343, 362 Auld, Hadaway, 108, 350 Auld, Hugh, Jr.; character of, 82, 105, 180-83, 189-90; Douglass resides with, 77, 79-99,

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102-5, 118, 173-91, 201,341, 343-44, 4012; hires Douglass out, 175-80, 182-83, 18689, 201; home of, 95-96, 188, 341-45, 366; manumits Douglass, 215-16, 341, 381; as Methodist, 348; opposes Douglass's education, 83-84, 87-88, 91, 98, 256-57; purchases Douglass, 341; quarrels with Thomas Auld, 104-5; seeks Douglass's rendition, 195; as ship carpenter, 97, 175, 181-82, 194, 341, 343-44, 362 Auld, Hugh, Sr., 77, 341, 343, 350, 354 Auld, Lucretia Planner Anthony, 99. 340; children of, 348-50; death of, 102, 104, 348-50; Douglass and, 75-77, 81-82, 102, 107, 249, 436-37; marries Thomas Auld, 46, 75, 33334, 341, 437-38 Auld, Rowena Hambleton, 104, 110, 349; children of, 437; mistreats Douglass, 107-9 Auld, Sophia Keithley, 341; character of, 79-82, 87-88, 92, 95-96, 102, 104-5, 180-81, 343, 428; teaches Douglass, 83-84, 87-88, 92, 9899, 256, 343, 420, 428 Auld, Thomas: Aaron Anthony and, 46, 77, 79, 99, 107, 324-26, 331, 341, 343, 348, 350, 401, 436; Lucretia Planner Anthony Auld and, 46, 75, 333-34, 341, 348, 350, 437-38; Betsy Bailey and, 32, 252, 321-22, 328, 439; character of, 102, 107-10, 118, 172-75, 180, 248, 253, 324; children of, 348-49; Edward Covey and, 116-17, 129-33, 180; defenders of, 360; Douglass criticizes in Narrative, 341, 360; Douglass resides with, 79-109, 129-33, 149, 169, 173-74, 186-87, 201, 215-16, 247-54; Douglass sold by, 215-16, 341; Douglass visits, 437; Douglass writes to, 247-54, 287, 417; William Hambleton and, 116, 174; hires Douglass out, 155, 186-89, 344; owns Douglass, 109, 169, 186-87, 201, 341, 343; parents of, 354; promises to manumit Douglass, 173; quarrels with Hugh Auld, 104-5; religion and, 110-15, 130, 134, 151-52, 173, 180, 303, 351, 437; in St. Michaels, 114-15, 166, 341, 351, 360; Sally Lloyd and, 99, 341; sells Douglass to brother Hugh, 341, 381; as ship captain, 78, 99, 330, 341; slaves of, 104-5, 252, 322, 324-26, 331, 334, 341, 348, 350; A.C.C. Thompson and, 335; whips slaves, 115 Auld, Thomas ("Tommy"; son of Hugh Auld): death of, 175, 343, 361; Douglass and, 79-80, 82-83, 87, 98-99, 102, 105, 175

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Auld, Zipporah, 341, 350, 354 Austria, 310 Autobiographical Sketches (De Quincey), xix Autobiography: black authors of, xiii, 300; credibility of, xx; didactic purpose of, xvii, xix-xxi; Douglass reviews, xiii-xiv, xxxii, xxxv; as historical tool, xv, xvii-xviii, xx-xxi; literary theorists and, xiv-xviii; Victorians and, xxv. See also Fugitive slave narratives; narratives of individual fugitives Autobiography, My Schools and Schoolmasters, An (Miller), 8, 302-3 Autobiography of a Fugitive Negro (Ward), xxxvii-xxxviii, 300 Autobiography of a Working Man (anon.), xxii Avery College (Pittsburgh), 301 Azerbaijan, 319

Bailey, Betsey (Douglass's grandmother), xxxvi; Thomas Auld and, 32, 252, 321-22, 328, 439; children of, 23-24, 29, 103-4, 321-22, 328, 331; Douglass lives with, 22-25, 27-32, 39, 78, 99, 117-18, 321, 324, 399-400, 428; grandchildren of, 23-24; mistreatment alleged, 22, 103-4, 252, 321, 437, 439; physical description of, 18, 22, 28, 399-400; skills on plantation, 18, 22, 399-400; wife of Isaac Bailey, 22, 24, 321 Bailey, Betty (elder), 325 Bailey, Betty ("'young" Betty; Douglass's cousin), 29, 324-25 Bailey, Eliza (Douglass's sister), 29-30, 108, 110, 326, 354, 438 Bailey, Esther. See Bailey, Hester Bailey, Frederick Augustus Washington. See Douglass, Frederick Bailey, Gamaliel, 307, 336-37, 408 Bailey, Harriet (Douglass's mother); Aaron Anthony and, 32, 252, 321-22, 328, 436; children of, 18, 24, 29, 321-22, 325-26, 423, 428; death of, 18, 34-36, 165, 322, 327, 428, 436; defends Douglass, 18, 33; hired out, 32, 326, 428; literacy of, 18, 34, 428; physical description of, xxxvi, 18, 31, 34, 317; at Tuckahoe, 34, 36; at Wye House 31-33 Bailey, Henny, 48-49, 104 5, 108, 115, 331, 334, 349 Bailey, Henry (Douglass's uncle), 41, 174, 331, 436; escape plot and, 159, 170-71 Bailey, Hester (Douglass's aunt), 24; children of,

INDEX

46, 322; Edward "'Ned" Roberts and, 50-52, 334; whipping of, 51-54, 334 Bailey, Isaac (Douglass's grandfather), 27; children of 23-24, 29, 103-4, 321-22, 331; free man, 24; husband of Betsey Bailey, 22, 24, 321; physical description of, 22 Bailey, Jenny (Douglass's aunt), 24, 249, 322, 328 Bailey, Maria, 325 Bailey, Milly (Douglass's aunt), 24, 48-49, 104, 322, 324-25, 328, 334 Bailey, Nancy, 29, 325 Bailey, Perry (Douglass's brother), 29-30, 101 2, 325, 436, 438 Bailey, Priscilla (Douglass's aunt), 24, 110, 322 Bailey, Sarah (Douglass's sister), 29-30, 325-26 Bailey, Thomas (Baltimore shipwright), 344 Bailey, Tom (Douglass's cousin), 29, 78, 174, 324, 342, 361 Balston, N.Y., 366 Baltimore, Lord, 322 Baltimore County, Md., 328, 381 Baltimore, Md., 164, 340; Aliceanna Street, 79, 81, 342, 363; Basin Area, 342; Bethel Church, 98; Block Street, 364; Bond Street, 180, 347, 363; Bowley's Wharf, 79, 342; churches of, 96, 98, 111, 114, 150, 345, 347-48; City Dock, 181-82, 189-90, 363-66; clippers, 17, 317; compared to North, 199; Douglass resides in, 17, 77, 99, 103-5, 114, 118, 127, 140, 173, 91, 193, 197, 270, 287, 317, 326, 341, 343, 348, 363-64, 366, 401-2, 420, 425, 428, 433; Douglass speaks in, 326; Druham Street, 342; East Baltimore Mental Improvement Society, 182, 364; Exeter Street, 365; Falls Street, 188, 366; Fell Street, 345; Fleet Street, 342; Fountain Street, 342; free blacks in, 21, 23-24, 67, 95, 98, 114, 152, 1778, 182, 196, 199, 334, 33738, 343, 345, 347, 353-54, 356, 364-70; government of, 180-81, 333, 382; Loudon Slater's Hill, 79, 342; as market center, 37, 43, 57, 63, 90, 105-6, 270, 328, 330-32, 349; Market Street, 345, 366; newspapers in, 94, 346; Paca Street, 363; Philpot Street, 89, 344, 366; Pratt Street, 270, 341-42, 363; shipyards of, 78-79, 89, 95, 97-98, 121, 175-80, 194, 199, 317, 341-44, 355, 361, 365; slave escapes from, 186, 189-91; slave trade in, 67, 270, 381; slaves in, 17, 37, 57, 67, 77-99, 103-05, 114, 118, 127, 134, 140, 150, 163, 193, 197, 199,

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INDEX

215-16, 270-71, 317, 326, 337, 339, 341, 343, 348, 356, 363-64, 401-2, 425, 428, 433; Smith's Wharf, 79, 342; Thames Street, 90, 345, 362, 366; Waters's Wharf, 97; wharfs of, 79, 97, 199; white artisans in, 177-80, 199, 343, 345, 349; Wilke Street, 96; Wolf Street, 362. See also Fells Point (Baltimore) Baptists, 300-301, 380, 386, 396 Barney (Old). See Sampson, Barnett. Barney (Young). See Bentley, Barnett Barwick, White, 327 Basin area (Baltimore), 342 Baxter Street (New York), 339 Bayard Street (New York), 339 Bayliss, John, xxvi Bayside, Md., 110, 116, 173, 252, 350-51 Beating, See Slaves, whipping of Beecher, Catharine, 369 Beecher, Henry Ward, 337, 408 Belamy (religious writer), 415 Belfast, Ire., 336 Bell, Phillip, 308 Belt, T. Hanson, 216, 382 Bennett, James Gordon, 417 Bentley, Barnett ("Young Barney"; slave), 65, 338 Benton, Thomas Hart, xviii, xxii, 268 Bethel African Methodist Church (Baltimore), 98, 347 Bibb, Henry, xxii, xxiii, xxix, 9, 303-4 Bible, 98, 204; books of, 359; denied to slaves, 83, 95, 114, 152; evolutionary controversy and, 319; New Testament, 157, 259; Old Testament, 28, 324, 359; as proslavery argument, 35, 222, 242, 261, 327, 359; refernces, 28, 35, 58, 62, 65, 75, 88, 95-96, 107, 112, 115, 132, 136-37, 150, 152, 158-60, 184, 196, 203-4, 211, 233, 263-65, 273, 279, 282-83, 302, 324, 326-27, 337-38, 347-48, 350-51, 354, 356-58, 360, 365, 368, 371, 374-75, 379, 397, 408, 428 Bingham, Caleb, 344 Birmingham Anti-Slavery Society, 383 Birmingham, Eng., 383-84 Birmingham Political Union, 383 Bizarre (Philadelphia). See Phildadelphia Bizarre Black laws, 274, 313 Black Man, His Antecedents, His Genius, and His Achievements, The (Brown), 301 Black Sea, 319

445

Blacks: as abolitionists, 7, 184, 299-305, 308-9, 336-37, 364-65, 367, 369, 371, 373, 375-76, 406, 420-23, 428, 433; agents of, 312-13; American and Foreign Anti-Slavery Society and, 301, as authors, 300; as autobiographers, xiii, xxv-xxvi; education of, 252, 299: Indians and, 260; intellectual capacities of, xxxviiixxxix, 6, 267, 404, 414, 416; Methodist Episcopal Church and, 95-96, 202; as Presbyterians, 301-2; in Syracuse, N.Y., 302; visit Scotland, 215, 299; voting rights, 14, 310. See also Free blacks; Fugitive slaves Blackwood's Magazine (Edinburgh), xiv, xxii Blasing, Mutlu K., xxvii Block Street (Baltimore), 364 Blues, xxvi-xxvii Bonaparte, Napoleon I, 18, 318 Bond Street (Baltimore), 180, 347, 363 Bondly, Beal. See Bordley, John Beale Bonney, Isaac, 202-3, 373-74 Bordley, John Beale, 73-74, 340 Bordley, Matthias, 340 Boston, 14, 244, 280, 314, 344, 346, 377; abolitionists in, 12, 226-28, 261, 281, 305-6, 31112, 364, 380-81, 421, Boyd Street, 380; churches of, 386; Douglass in, 232, 380, 391; Faneuil Hall, 407; free hlacks in, 319, 364, 371; fugitive slaves in, 364-65; government of, 306; newspapers in, 378, 395, 405; proslavery mob in, 261, 313; racial discrimination in, 199, 213-14, 371; as trade center, 396 Boston and Maine Railroad, 395 Boston and New Bedford Railroad. See New Bedford Railroad Boston and Portland Zion's Herald and Wesleyan Journal, 405 Boston and Providence Railroad, 396-97 Boston Commons, 214 Boston Journal,xxxiii, 410 Boston Times, 378 Boston Whig, 395 Bowdoin College (Maine), 13, 308 Bowery Boys, 339 Bowley's Wharf (Baltimore), 79, 342 Bowling Bay, Scot., 220, 389 Boyd Street (Boston), 380 Brazil, 15, 361-62 Brazos County, Tex., 325 Brevard, Joseph, 379 Brevard's Digest, 213, 241, 379

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Briggs, George N., 232, 396 Bristol County Anti-Slavery Society, 375 Bristol County, Mass., 233, 375, 397 British and Foreign Anti-Slavery Reporter, 41922 British and Foreign Anti-Slavery Society, 384 British and Foreign Medico-Chirurgical Review, 311 British Banner, xxxvi-xxxviii, 218, 384, 42426 British East India Company, 305 British Ensign (London), 384 British Standard (London), 384 Broad Creek, 329 Broad Creek Neck (Md.), 329 Broadway Avenue (New York), 193, 366 Broadway Tabernacle (New York), 415 Broome Street (New York), 366 Brotherhood ofThieves, The (Foster), 312 Brown, Henry ("Box"), 184, 364-65 Brown, John, 302, 388 Brown University, 380, 397 Brown, William Wells, xxiii, xxix-xxx, 7, 301 Bruff, Mrs., 437 Bryant, William Cullen, 281 Buffalo Daily Courier, xxxiv, xxxvii, 404 Buffalo Morning Express and Daily Democrat, xxxiv, 402-3 Buffalo, N.Y., 301, 319 Buffum, James N., 214; abolitionist activities of, 210, 376-78; opposes Free Church of Scotland, 220-21 Burleigh, Charles Calistus, 15, 313 Burleigh, William Henry, 313 Burns, Robert, 416 Butler, Samuel, 189-90, 365 Byron, Lord, 307, 344, 357; quoted, 12-13, 86, 142, 430 Cake. See Food Caldwell, Handy (slave), 150 Calhoun, John C., 277 California, 267, 369, 376 Cambria (ship); Douglass's first voyage on, 21011, 215, 219, 223, 376-78, 392; Douglass's second voyage on, 225, 391-93 Cambridge, Md., 321 Cambridge, Mass., 311 Camden, Del., 353 Camp meetings: Thomas Auld attends, 351, 438;

INDEX

Douglass attends, 188-89; of Methodist Episcopal Church, 110-11, 350-52 Campbell, A.R., 214, 380 Campbell, John, 218, 245-47, 382, 384 Campbell, John Reid, 214, 380 Canaan, 327 Canaan, N.H., 301 Canada: abolitionists in, 245, 300, 303; Douglass speaks in, xiv; fugitive slaves in, 160, 300, 302-3, 312, 317; immigration to, 303, 393; proslavery in, 261 Canal Street (New York), 366 Candlish, Robert Smith, 220-21, 388 Cannon Mills, Scot., 221-22, 390 Canterbury, N.H., 312 Cape Clear, Ire., 212, 379 Cape May, N.J., 366 Cape Palmas, 13 Capital punishment, 313, 383, 385 Capitalism, 37, 299-300, 302 Captain Canot, or Twenty Years of an African Slaver (Conneau), xvi Carboneria, 383 Card, Frederick, 220 Carlile, James, 382 Carlyle, Thomas, xxvi Caroline County, Md., 320-23, 329, 340, 367 Caroline (slave), 118, 124-25, 140 Carpenter, R.I., 391 Caspian Sea, 319 Catherine (ship), 365 Caucasians, 319 Caucasus Mountains, 19, 319 Ceal (slave), 147 Cellini, Benvenuto, xx Central College (New York), 315 Chalmers, Thomas, 220-21, 386-88 Chapman, Henry Grafton, 380 Chapman, Maria Weston, 376, 380-81 Charitable donations, 300 Charitable Marine Society (Baltimore), 345 Charles Street (Baltimore), 382 Charleston, S.C., 331 Charlestown, Mass., 380 Chartism, 236, 383 Chase, Salmon P., 274 Chase, Stephen A., 230, 395 Chateaubriand, Francois-Rene, xx Chatham, Earl of, See Pitt, William (the elder) Chesapeake Bay, 320, 329, 354; Aaron Anthony

Last edit 9 months ago by JBrown
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INDEX

and, 45, 436; commerce on, 43, 45, 105-6; Douglass describes, 118, 125-26; as slave escape route, 136, 163 -64, 174, 336-37; slave trade on, 270 Chesapeake Bay Bridge, 354 Chester County, Eng., 381 Chester, William, 364 Chestertown, Md., 352 Chicago, Ill., 14, 319 Child, Lydia Mana, 376 Childe Harold's, Pilgrimage (Byron), 13, 142, 307, 357, 430 China, 63, 319 Cholera. See Disease, epidemics Choptank River (Md.) 21, 320-21, 419 Christ, Jesus, 95, 137; second coming of, 106 "Christabel" (COLERIDGE), 299 Christian Advocate, xxxvii, 411 Christian Ambassador, 412 Christian Recorder (Philadelphia), 391 Christian Reformer (London), 379 Christian Watchman and Reflector (Boston), xxxviii, 418-19 Christian Witness (London), 384 Christian's Penny Magazine (London), 384 Churches: abolitionists and, 218, 278, 282, 284, 300, 304-5, 309, 311-13, 373, 388, 390; in Baltimore, 96, 98, 111, 114, 150, 345, 347-48; discrimination in, 111, 387; of free blacks, 195, 200-202, 267, 300-302, 373; of Great Britain, 90, 217-23, 246, 300, 305, 370, 379, 383-84, 386; of Ireland, 90, 213; of Maryland, 239; of Massachusetts, 201-3, 205, 214, 373-74; proslavery in, 202, 242, 254, 262, 266, 282, 373, 419, 423, 426; of Scotland, 219-23, 301, 384-88, 390; support Fugitive Slave Law, 271. See also individual denominations Cicero, 344 City Block. See City Dock (Baltimore) City Hall Park (New York), 366 Civil War, 285, 301-2, 305, 315-16, 333, 372- 73; black soldiers in, 312; European opinion and, 389; Abraham Lincoln and, 300, 397; Maryland in, 343, 346, 356; politics during, 300 "Claims for the Negro Ethnologically Considered, The" (Douglass), 16, 320 Clara (ship), 363 Cleveland, Ohio, 313

447

Clifford, John Henry, 232-33, 397 Cline, Sarah, 115, 354 Clotel (Brown), 301 Coffin, Timothy, 397 Coffin, William C., 205, 375 Cohee, Perry, 325 Coleridge, Samuel Taylor, 1, 299 Collins, John Anderson: as abolitionist, 375, 394; hires Douglass as lecturer, 205-8, 375-76; manumission and, 113-14; Methodist Episcopal Church and, 113-14; travels to Africa, 275 Collins. Robert, 365 Colonization: as antislavery measure, 113, 309; opposition to, 299-300, 309, 312, 315, 373, 385; support for, 272, 275-76, 308-9, 312, 385 Colored American (New York), 299, 308 Colored Association of Massachusetts, 312 Columbian Orator, The (Bingham), 151; influence upon Douglass, xiv, 90, 156, 198, 344-45 Columbus Daily Ohio State Journal, xxxvii 403 Columbus Park (New York), 339 Commentaries (Story), 314 "Communipaw." See Smith, James McCune Complete Suffrage Movement, 383 Compromise of 1850, 273, 282, 366 Conciliation Hall (Dublin), 258 Concord, N.H., 396 Confederate States of America, 389 Confessions of an English Opium-Eater (De Quincey), xviii-xix Congregational Church, 302, 384 Conjuring. See Religion, African; Slaves, conjurers; Slaves, religion and Connecticut, 344, 373; free blacks in, 302, 313, 367 Construction, 23, 27, 39 Conway, Mass., 327 Cookman, George, 113-14, 351-53 Cooper, Ignatius Taylor, 113, 352 Cooper, Isaac, 41-43, 113, 352-53, 400 Cork, lre., 379; abolitionists in, 391; Douglass in, 336 Corn, 27, 33, 336 Cornish, Samuel E., 13, 308-9 Cotton, 341 Count of Monte Cristo, The (Dumas), 317 Courtland, N.Y., 300 Covent Garden Theatre (London), 386

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