Wellcome Collection: Manuscript recipe book of Grace Carteret, 1st Countess Granville (1654-1744) (MS.8903)

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English manuscript book of medicinal and culinary recipes owned by Grace Carteret, 1st Countess Granville (1654-1744), with ownership inscription on the inside front cover.

The volume is closely associated with the contemporary Ann Fanshawe recipe manuscript held by the Wellcome Library (MS.7113). The Carterets and Fanshawes were family friends, as Ann Fanshawe's memoirs ( British Library Add MS 41161) indicate. The families' relationship is reflected in overlaps in content between the recipes in the two volumes, notably the highly unusual early recipe for ice cream at MS.8903, f.9. This is closely related to the famous ice cream recipe at MS.7113, f.158r, and appears to date to before the first English printed ice cream recipe in Mrs. Mary Eale's Receipts (London 1718).

The recipes are undated but the majority are written in a single fair hand dating from the mid to late 17th century, with additional recipes added or inserted in a wide variety of hands dating to around the mid 18th century. There is a clue to dating in the record of butter salting days for June-November 1662 entered at ff.4-5. Given that part of the butter salting record is inserted into gaps in the fair hand recipe text, it seems likely that the former was added into the volume after or at the same time as the initial recipes were entered.

There is a list of apothecary's weights and measures on the inside front cover.

The recipes are arranged as follows:

In the original hand:
Creams, syllabubs, cream cheeses, ff.5-19
Preserves, dried fruits, syrups, ff.24-36
Wines and ales, ff.37-41
Fish, meat, poultry, game, ff.43-57 (including recipes in later hands at ff.55-57)
Medicinal recipes, ff.58-69 (including recipes in later hands throughout)
Pickles, ff.70-71

In mixed later hands:
Medicinal recipes (interpersed with a few culinary recipes), ff.72-83
Culinary recipes (interpersed with a few medicinal recipes), ff.84-106

The volume does not contain an integral index or contents list. We are grateful to Gwenneth Heyking of the Herb Society for transcribing the recipe titles as follows:

f.5 A Creame Sillibub
f.5 To make Snow of Green Apples
f.5 To Make a Foole
f.6 Malbury A Sack Possett
f.6 A Custard
f.6 A Leamon Creame
f.6 A White Wine Creame
f.6 A Brown Bread Creame
f.7 Blank
f.8 Mrs Risden Harts Horne Jelley
f.8 A Sillibub
f.8 A Sillibub
f.9 Calves foot Gelley
f.9 The Ice Creame
f.9 The Blanche Creame
f.9 The Steeple Creame
f.9 Butter-milk Curds
f.9 The Quince Creame
f.9 Almon Creame
f.10 Mrs Fountain The Imperiall Creame
f.10 A Creame Cheese to be made at the hottest time of the year to keep all the winter
f.10 A Cream Cheese
f.10 Mrs Fountaines Cheese Cakes
f.10 The Froth Creame
f.10 A Leamon Creame
f.10 The Clouted Creame
f.10 The Spanish Creame
f.11 To make the Clodding Cream
f.11 A Cold Posset
f.11 A Sack Creame
f.11 To Make Egge Creame
f.11 To Make Fresh Cheese
f.11 To Make Almon Butter Gelley
f.11 To Make Almon Creame
f.11 The Orrange Foole
f.12 To Make Orrang Creame
f.13 Mrs Egerton Almon Butter
f.13 Very Good Cheese Cakes
f.13 A Buttermilk Creame
f.13 A Thick Creame Cheese
f.13 An Almon Custard
f.14 Almon Butter made with Milke
f.14 A Creame Cheese
f.14 A Codling Creame
f.14 To Make a Posset without Milk
f.14 Almon Butter Best Way
f.15 Lady Jacob Cheese Cake
f.15 To Make Leach
f.15 A Pretty Dish of Creame
f.15 A Lemon Sillibub
f.15 The Cabbage Creame
f.16 Mrs Malbery The Angelot Cheese
f.16 A Creame Cheese
f.16 A Cold Creame
f.16 Almond Butter
f.16 A Trifle
f.16 Junkets
f.16 Curds and Creame another way
f.17 A Creame Cheese
f.17 A Cheese
f.17 The White Custard
f.17 To Make Cheese Cakes without Curds
f.17 To Make Fresh Cheese without Runnet
f.17 A Creame Cheese
f.18 A Creame Posset the best way
f.18 A Whipt Sillibub
f.18 The Cheife Leamon Cream
f.19 Cleare Cakes of Orranges
ff.20-23 Blank
f.24 To dry Cherries
f.24 To preserve Barberries
f.24 To dry Barberries
f.24 To Dry Aprecox
f.24 To Candy any sorts of flowers for sallets
f.24 To preserve the Morrella Cherrie
f.25 The Flech of Aprecox
f.25 The Flech of white Quinces
f.25 To preserve the Kentish Cherrie in Gelley
f.25 To Dry any fruit wihout etc
f.26 To Candy Grapes or Gooseberris after you have preserved them
f.26 To Make Suger Plates of any Cullor
f.26 To make Jumballs or Cakes
f.26 Orrange Waffers
f.26 Apricock Past
f.26 Past of Green Nectrines
f.26 To keep Fruit as Damsons and Grapes fresh till Xmas
f.27 To Dry Damsons or any other plumbs to look as blew as from the tree
f.28 Sweet water to burn
f.28 Marmalet of Quince White
f.28 Preserved Grapes
f.28 To preserve Walnuts white
f.28 To preserve Walnuts Black
f.29 Clear Cakes of Quince
f.29 To dry Black pear Plumbs
f.29 Clear Cakes of Apricox
f.30 Cleare Cakes of Rasberries
f.30 Sirrup of Clove gilliflowers
f.30 Sirrup of Corrall
f.30 To make sirrup of Gilliflowers with Leamon
f.31 An aproved Sirrup for the Spleen
f.32 To make Sirrup of Elderberries
f.32 Sirrup of Elder
f.32 To make Sirup of Saffron
f.32 Lady Scarbrough To preserve Grapes
f.32 To Preserve Grapes
f.32 A Sort of Rasbury Cakes
f.32 To Dry Peaches
f.33 To preserve Kentish or golden pippen
f.33 To Make Fruit Biskit
f.33 To Dry Plumbs
f.33 Clear Cakes of Rasberries
f.33 To Dry Apricox
f.33 To Make Leamon or Cytorn [citron] Jelley
f.33 Apricox Marmalet
f.33 Kentish Chery Marmalet
f.34 To dry Cherries
f.34 To Preserve the Clear Plumb or any
f.34 Red Quince Marmalet
f.34 To preserve Quince whole red
f.34 Orrange or Leamon Cakes
f.34 Conserve of Red Roses
f.35 To make white Quince Marmalet
f.35 To preserve Green Apricox
f.35 To preserve Rasberries
f.35 To make Orrange Cakes
f.35 To make Damson Biscuit
f.35 To make Dutch Cakes
f.36 Cleare Cakes of white Curran
f.36 To make Orrange Cakes
f.36 Cleare Cakes of white Pear-plumbs
f.36 To preserve Goosberries Dryed
f.36 To keepe Walnuts Fresh or moyst all Winter
f.37 Leamon Ade to be drunk in Summer (margin: LC)
f.37 Rasbury Wine
f.37 Black Cherry Brandie
f.37 Rasbery Brandie
f.38 Rasberrie Wine
f.38 To make Gilliflower Cowslip or Rasberrie Wine
f.39 To preserve Cytorns [citrons]
f.39 Cowslip Wine
f.39 Apricock Wine
f.40 A Raison Wine
f.40 Leamon A[…]
f.40 Cock Ale
f.40 The White Mead
f.40 Cowslip Wine
f.41 To make a kind of Malt drink Cheshire way
f.41 Cock Ale
f.41 Another Cock Ale
f.42 Blank
f.43 To make Elderberry Wine
f.43 To make Quince Wine
f.43 To Dress a Carp
f.43 To Dresse Pike Tench or Carp
f.44 To boyle a joale of Salmon
f.44 To Stew a Carp
f.44 To Collor Beefe
f.45 To Collor Beefe
f.46 To Collor Veile
f.46 Hanged Beefe
f.46 A Pig Pye
f.46 Sassages
f.46 Sassages another way
f.46 Beefe Mamode
f.47 Sassages another way
f.47 A Good sauce for a Hare
f.47 To Dresse a Pigg
f.47 To Roast a Leg of Mutton to eat cold
f.47 To Roast Oysters
f.48 A Friggacie of Chickens Rabits or Pigions
f.48 Scotch Collops
f.48 To Roast a Shoulder of Mutton
f.48 A Frigacie of Cold Roast Beefe
f.48 Stewd Beefe
f.49 To souce all kind of foule
f.49 To Dresse a Loyne of Mutton
f.49 An Ele Pye
f.49 To Dry Neats Tongues
f.49 To souce a Pigg
f.49 A French Pottage
f.49 A Goose to Eat Cold
f.50 To Roast a Sholder of Mutton In Blood
f.50 Beefe Alamode to eat Cold
f.50 To Dresse a pike
f.51 To Roast a Pike
f.51 To Roast a Goose after the Cheshire way
f.51 To Roast a Capon with Oystors
f.51 The Kings Pease Pottage
f.51 To Boyle a Carp
f.51 To Boyle a Codds Head
f.52 To Stew a Leg of Beefe
f.52 To Make a Friggacie
f.52 To Stew a Carp
f.52 A Haggis Pudding
f.52 How to Bake Venison or Beefe in potts to keep all the yeare
f.52 To Boyle a Brest of Mutton
f.53 To Boyle Mutton
f.53 A Couple of Carps in Crafish
f.53 How to Bake a Swan in a Pie
f.53 To Bake a Rump of Beefe
f.53 A Pudding of a Leg of Mutton
f.54 To dress a Lambs head
f.54 To Stew a Calves Head
f.54 A Broth For a Consumption
f.55 To Make Pole Bisket
f.55 To dresse mushroome hot or a Friggasie of mushrooms
f.55 To Fry Oysters
f.56 To make Cheesecakes
f.56 To make a Devonshire white Pot
f.56 To stew Salary for boyld Fowls
f.56 To make Apricock fritters
f.57 To Dry Bacon or Beefe
f.57 To make Gooseberry Vinegar
f.57 To make a Trifle
f.57 A Crust for fruit or sweet meat Tarts
f.58 To make hair grow where it is bare
f.58 Soveraigne Medicine for the shortness of Breath and purseness
f.58 For A Consumption Cough
f.58 Cynomon Water
f.58 A Water to Clear a Sunburnd face
f.58 To make Cherry water
f.59 Milk-water against a Consumption
f.59 Dyet Drink
f.59 Good Whea to drink in the summer
f.60 The Jesuits dropps
f.60 The Virtues of the Jesuits drops
f.60 The Virgins Milke
f.60 Almony Milk to unstop the Liver or the Spline
f.61 Spirit of Clary
f.61 Orrange Water
f.61 The small Sufitt Water
f.61 Treacle Water
f.62 Cynomon Water
f.62 Spirit of Cytorns [citrons]
f.62 Almon Milk
f.62 Almon Milk a second way
f.62 A precious Cordial to be made in May June etc
f.63 Lemon Water
f.63 A Sweet Water
f.63 A Sweet Bag
f.64 To perfume Gloves the Spanish way
f.64 How to make poppy Water for a surfeit
f.64 Spirit of Caster
f.64 Simple Water of poppies
f.64 Poppy Water
f.65 The Imperiall Water
f.65 To make Water of Rosasolis to be gatered in the month of June and July
f.66 To make Peaches or apricox in brandy
f.67 To pott Fowles in Jeley
f.68 Blank
f.69 Violet Water
f.70 To Picle Mushrroones
f.70 To pickle Oysters
f.70 To pickland Pursland Stalks
f.70 To Pickle Barberries
f.70 To make Leamon Sallet
f.70 To Pickle Walnuts after the Indian way given by an Indin Marcham
f.70 To Pickle Broome Budds
f.71 To Pickle Ash Keyes
f.71 To Pickle Turnips
f.71 To Pickle Cucumbers Purslin etc
f.71 To Pickle Heartichocks
f.71 To Pickle Cucumbers
f.71 To Pickle Mushroomes
f.72 To make Almon Biskett
f.72 To make Little plume Cakes
f.72 A Esspetiall Medecine to cure all kind of Maladies and griefs
f.73 An excellent Cordiall
f.73 For the Wormes in Stomach or Belly
f.73 For a bruise
f.73 An approved medicine for a Canker
f.73 To break the Stone
f.73 For a Feaver, Wormes or any distemper at first
f.73 A Drinck in a Feaver
f.73 To cure a Feaver at three times Taking
f.73 For the Dropsey
f.73 To staunch bleeding at nose or wound
f.73 For a paine in the head
f.73 For a Loosenes
f.73 For the Faling sickness
f.73 For the same
f.73 Another
f.73 To make Sirrup of Ruberb
f.73 How to make the black Plaister
f.74 To make a Goosbery Tansie
f.74 To make Orange Marmalade
f.74 For a Dropsie or Raw Stomach
f.74 A water for an Ague
f.74 For a Flushing in the face after eating
f.74 A water for an Ague
f.74 A Medicine for the Chollick
f.74 For an Itch
f.74 For a Soare throat
f.74 The Italian Plaister
f.74 An Oyntment for a burn with Gunpowder
f.74 The Golden Searcloth Excellent good for the Sciatica, Gout, Bruises, Stich in the back or sides and Strains
f.75 To stay the bleeding of a wound
f.75 For the Collick
f.75 Lucatellus's Balsome
f.75 There Vertues
f.75 A Purge to Strengthen the liver and against the Dropsy
f.75 The Leaden Plaister
f.76 To preserve fruit all the yeare
f.76 A walnutt water Excellent for many things
f.76 For a palsy a good Oyntment
f.76 A rare medicine for Chest wormes
f.76 For the Stopping of the water
f.76 Another for the Same
f.76 Another
f.76 For the Strangurie or bloody water
f.76 Another
f.76 For the Collick
f.77 The Greene oyntment
f.77 Doctor Stephens Water the same of Doctor Chamberlain with which he did much good and at his death
f.77 The vertues of this Water
f.77 A Water that healeth all manner of feavours att three times takeing
f.77 An Excellent recept for a lin and webb in the Eye
f.78 To make Swallow water
f.78 The vertues
f.78 To make Bacon, Westphalia fashion
f.78 A Receipt for Plague Watter
f.79 A List of the Herbs and other Ingredients for the Plauge watter [T]ribled
f.80 A Certain Cure for a Sore Breast without Pain that Comes by Milk or Ague not by a Blow
f.80 To Stew a Neck of Veall
f.80 To Make a Frigasye
f.80 How to make Scotch Collops
f.80 How to Stew Tripes
f.80 To make a very good pickle for Tongues or Hames of Bacon
f.81 To preserve Oranges whole
f.81 To Pickle Hames the Westphalia way
f.81 Mrs […]s Surfit Water
f.82 To make Orange Marmalade
f.82 To picle Porke
f.83 A Powder for Convulsions
f.83 To Make Burbon Biskett
f.84 To Pickle Mushrooms
f.85 To make Oyle of Charity
f.85 Lord Gower receate to make Elderbery wine
f.85 To make a jam of Cherries
f.86 To preserve Quinches in Syrrop of a pure Cullor
f.86 To make Jelley of Pippins
f.86 To preserve Whole Oranges
f.87 To Dry Aprococks
f.87 To make Pastatia Creame
f.87 To Pickle Colleyflowers
f.87 To make Browne Sawce for Severall sorts of meate as a brest of mutton Ducks Turkeys or what else you f.87 please
f.88 To make Tongs
f.88 The Oyster Loafe
f.88 How to Coller Beefe
f.88 To Green Fruit
f.89 How to Coller Beef
f.89 Goose Bery Wine
f.89 To Stew a Carp
f.90 To Make Good Cheescakes
f.90 To Make Rare Fritters
f.90 How to Dry Neats Tongues
f.91 A Cake
f.91 Scotch Collops
f.91 To Make Rare Peaspottage
f.91 To Do Fish after the Spannish Fashion to keep Good a Year
f.92 A Rare Receipt to Make a Dish Pudding
f.92 To Make Runnet
f.92 The Best way of Making Angelotts
f.92 To Stew a Calves head
f.92 An Excellent Surfett Swatter
f.93 For a Consumption
f.93 Aquamirabilis
f.93 Orange Water
f.93 To Make Purfume to Burn
f.93 For a Cough
f.93 To Make a Spinage Tart
f.93 To make a Custard
f.93 To make a Tansey
f.94 For Incompareable Ale
f.94 For a Boyled Pudding
f.94 Puffs
f.94 To Make Bunns
f.94 To Stew Chickins
f.94 To Make Lemmon Creame
f.95 To Make Sugar Cakes
f.95 To Make Rice Puddings
f.95 To Make Jumballs
f.95 To make Almond Puddings to Bake
f.95 To Make Lemmon Creame
f.95 To Make Orange Marmalett
f.95 To Make Yest to be not Bitter
f.95 For the Meagrim Appoplexy Vertigo Coma
f.95 To make Syrrup with opening Roots
f.96 The Virtue of the Root of the Common Burdock
f.96 To Cure a Burn and heal it without a Scar
f.96 For any Bruise
f.96 To Make Jelley for Carp Tench or any souced fish
f.96 To Dress a Pike
f.96 A Stomake Plaster for a Consumption
f.96 To Pickle Walnutts
f.97 A Jandes Drink
f.97 Orange Cakes
f.97 To make Quinch Jumballs
f.97 To make Aprecock Jumballs
f.97 To Make Fruit Wafers
f.97 To Make Orange or Lemon Wafers
f.98 To Preserve Cucumbers
f.98 For Greening of Fruit
f.98 To Make Read Marmalade in Jelley
f.98 To Candy any tender fruit Raw as Currens or Cherries etc
f.98 To Make Honnycombe Cakes of Sugar
f.98 To make Sugar Wafers
f.99 To Make Little Jumballs of Sugar
f.99 To Make Marmalade of Orange so Esteemed in Court
f.99 To Make Allmond Jumballs
f.99 Past of Pear Plumbs
f.99 Tart of White Pare Plumbs
f.100 Clear Cakes of Quinches
f.100 Clear Cakes of Goosberrys
f.100 Cherry Past
f.100 To Candy Angelico
f.100 To Preserve Quinches in Syrrop of A pure Culler
f.101 To pickle Piggons
f.101 Beef Allamode
f.101 A Dove Goos or Turkey
f.102 To Make Almond Chees Cakes Lady Atkins way
f.102 Lady Osborns Stich water
f.102 To make a Creem Cheese
f.102 To Make Cowslipe wine Mrs Herberts way
f.102 To make mead Mrs Michels way
f.103 To Make Blois bisket
f.103 A Butter'd Bisket
f.103 To Make Carraway Bunns
f.104 To Drie Figgs
f.104 To Make White Marmalade
f.104 To make the Countess of Warwicks Biskets
f.105 To make Almond Bisketts
f.105 To Make White Quince Marmalade Mrs Te[v]ars Way
f.106 To Stew pigeons Mrs Herberts way
f.106 To Stew Rabits Mrs Herberts way
f.106 To make Bath Biskets
f.106 To make Mrs Rowleys wafers
f.106 Miss C S [the recipe deals with cooking a hogs head and pickling it to keep a month]



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Needs Review

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96 296 The Virtue of the Root of the Common Burdock Take the Juice of the Root Burdock Four or 5 Spoonfull and it Expells poyson and Cures the Biting of Any Snake or other Venemous Creatures the Juce being and the pulpt applyed outwardly to the place afflicted the Juce being Drank Strengthens the Nerves and cures Sudden Paine

To Cure a Burn and heal it without a Sear Tke the white of an Egg beat it with Sallat Oyle & a Little [snow ] Water or Planton water Dip Cloths in It & lay it to the Burn or Scald Change them as Often as you See Cause that the sore may be keep Moyst & in few houres it will take out the fire.

For any Bruise Take a good quantity of Wild Tansey make a Strong Decoction of it in Springwater Straine it out and Season it with some white Salt to make it tast Brackish Let the party take of It 2 or 3 [Tims] a day a draugCht at a time and it will cure any Bruse in Taking a Bottell or 2 thereof Though the Bruse may be of [Lonng] Standing when you begin to take it

To Make a Jelley for Carp Tench or any Souced Fish Take Eeles Tench or both together gut them & wash them all the blooc cleane from them, & lay them to Soake in Water one day, to draw out the blood then cut them in pieces and put them in a [stero]pann with three quarts of Springwater then put to them halfe a pound of [] glass Chopt in small pieces

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270 Then put to them half a pound of [Ty]eing [Glafne] Chopt in Small peices Let It boyle Gently while it Comes to a firme [L]etey then Straine it and Let It Stand all night in a Coole place in the Morning Take of the Topp & Bottom put the Jelley in the Stewpan with 3 Large Nutmegs cut in peices some whole pepper and some whole Ma[ce] Just as it Boyles put in 2 Bay Leaves Clarifie it with whites of Eggs and Let it run Thoroug the Jelley bag upon your [j]h[j]h bring Cold lay on [Shitod] Lemmon when you melt the Jelley the J[u]rond hime add [10] half quantity of White wine you think fit it will give it a good tast

To Dress a Pike Take a Pike open it and cut it into 4 peices & open the Liver & Take the Gall from the Liver wash them all very put them into an Earthen pott with as much White wine Vineiger and Salt as will be Sufficenent to [Jejean] yhe Liquor you Boyle them in when the wather Boyles pour the Vinegier & Salt from the fish into it and then put yhe fish

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A Iandes Drink

Take a Male green that grows close to the Ground Sallendine and beltenny of earth a handfull a Little Spermint a handfull of the Green and of Goose Dung into a Quart of Ale & a pint of White wine Then put into It [two] 2 penny worth of salte on 2 spoonfulls of Taeck to Two penny worth of Turmurick a Little Metheredate halfe and unto at Rod Laundry then Lay a Cloth ous it the whole day you may Drink and when it is halfe Drank put in a nother pint of Ale

Orange Cakes

Take the

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Last edit over 2 years ago by Heather Soni
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Needs Review

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{272}To make Aprecock Tumballs Take Aprecockx that are very Ripe paire them & Take out none but the softest of Them put them in a dish & Set them over a Chapin dish of Coals to disolve it slowe[ 6t] any hard Lumps prick them out or straine it then set it over the Fire, when it is as dry as it will be Take it off and let it Coole then make it into past with Loaf sugar beaten then rowl them as small as you Can & Cutt them in what fasion you please 2 or 3 Apricocks will make a great many To Make Fruit Wafters Take your Fruit a Goosberys Currens or any Fruit that will Gelley Stew them in a Jugg pott as for Clear Caks when you have powered away the Clene put the pulpe thorough a sieve if you add a Little of the Clear Juce it makes your water the clearer take halfe the weight of your Pulpe in double refined sugar scald on boyle it to an Convenient Thickness & while the pulpe is boyling put the suger to it warme it for Red but if for white let the suger Coole againe Foald it till the Sugar is well mixed but be sure it boyle not then drop it and Set it in your stove till they will turne the cut of then and Rowle some thouse you Rowle must be droped broader that you may Rowle them double To Make Orange or Lemon Wafers. Take 6 oranges chipp them as for perserving and sweten them to take away the bitterness then boyle them in sedth Waters till they are tender then take the meche and take of all of the skins of 3 put all thorough a hose but before your weight in Suger [sift] it fine and heat it and make your pulpe scalding hott & then put in your hot sugar Let it mix will put in the juce of a Lemmon if you make Lemmon Wafer part of all the Pill that is yellow water and Boyle them in the other

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To Preserve Cucumbers {273} Take them small about a fingers length & wipe them & boyle in Water but not too tender then take them up and make a hole Thorough From the Length way then pare them and after Gredu them and make a thin syrrup & let them boyle a little then Let them Stand in an Earthen Galley pott 3 or 4 days then make another Syrrup & squeeze in your Juce of a Lemmon & let your Cucombers boyle till they be very cleane take them up and Selt them up for a day ten take to every pint of Liquor halfe a lb sugar & boyle them in it till they be ready then take them up and cutt a little slitt in in ever one of them & put in Little Muske or Ambr gpapr being finely ground with sugar then boyle the syrup untill it will amost Gelley. For Greening of Fruit Let your water be Almost Ready to Boyle then take it of the fire and put in a paire of them Then put in your fruit over the fire to keep Scalding hott For halfe a quarter of an hour till the Cullor please To Make Read Marmalade In Jelley Take the Quinchs and quarter them and Core & paire Them & as you paire them put them in Fair Water Then Weigh them and to every p. of Quinch put a p. of Sugar & a pint & halfe of Water then take the Quinch water & Sugars and put them into a Skellitt and Let them boyle a little to peirce them that they may be tender and Look Clere Let them not boyle so as so Breake Then Let them have very little fire only to keep them slowing Let them be close coveres till they Look of a Brik Collour Flour uncover them and take up the quarters

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