Journal, 1787 June 18-September 4.

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station, there are two burning springs within forty yards of each other each 3 or 3 1/2 yards diameter, whose water is of a blackish hue, a sweet maukish taste, stinks intollerably, about ten inches deep with a muddy bottom, that seems to boil with a considerable noise & effervesce that raises the fluid six Inches which when lighted by a torch takes fire & continues burning until put out, by whipping it with brushes, it once was permitted to burn for three months. Tho it rises above the banks, there is no apparant discharge or channel to carry it off, but supposed to sink & fall into a bog at 20 feet distance that is 4 or 5 feet lower than the springs. this had been well attested by others. it is said to have an oily taste & is about 300 miles S. S. W from Winchester.

At the same time Col Joseph Pew informed me, that 30 miles from Winchester, in Hampshire County on the side of North River & but a little higher than Winchester, there are Rocks in the fissures of which ascends a cold piercing wind that numb the fingers in a minute or two

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60[6?] written in the right margin

& in which rocks there is a bason of 18 feet diam. that has Ice all the year tho constantly exposed to the sun. He put large ants into the fissures, which were soon convulsed then appeared & remained in a torpid state until put into the sun, when they shortly recovered, this he repeated several times & with the same effect. [Qve?] must there not be a quantity of nitre below the rocks_ the above was confirmed by two Surveyors present who had examin'd it.

NB the head of mill spring was but 200 yards So East from the grist mill, 10 yards wide & tho on level Land, from whence a large body of water rushed rapidly out, more than sufficient to turn the mill. _

_ Kentucke 540 miles from Mill Creek _ was informed that onthe Allag mountains & back Country, there are various Religeous persuasions mostly Methodists, who travel to diffcient districts, preaching ever day, there are also many Almenions, disciples of Whitfield & of Westley, without charity & always at bitter enmity with each other. the farmers & Inhabitants exceedingly rigid & pious in their way

__ To Winchester Frederick County Rich land good road, on which are 29 good farmes & tobacco plantations. A Borough town. Court house Goal, market Assembly room Lutheran Calvanist Episcopal, many Babtist & Methodists

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Churches, an Academy & gramr. School 400 houses above 2000 Inhabitants, a flourishing town of great trade, excellent tobacco _

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______ To the blue Mountain. the first 7 miles a narrow Glade with risings on each side, by which means few farms in sight, next mile 4 farms when came to a Creek next 7 miles good land 9 farms 4 of them tobacco then a Creek on which a grist mill tan yard & blacksmith next 3 miles 5 farms 3 of them tobacco, then came to Shannando River 200 yards Berrys Ferry over, here ends the South Mountain, on fording the River entered upton the blue mountain a creek on the border with a Grist Mill_

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Trees on the above tract Oak, Chesnut, hickery, walnut, Sugar Maple, Ash, Birch, Poppa, Henna.

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__ To Ashbys tavern. mounted a ridge on the low mountain, waving land, with high mountains on all sides in all directions. the first 4 miles very stony 9 farms. the next 8 miles, for the most part free of stones 14 farms & 1 of tobacco, this stage well supplied with Springs, & which hath been pretty generally 10 - -

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___ To Fauqueres Court house. to Ashburys tavern, waving land many spring good road, mountains on each side 24 farms 13 of them tobacco, to the Court house the same, road more stony 21 farms mostly tobacco, a Goal & 25 Houses

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____________ To Mr. Malcome's. In a quarter of a mile a Creek & grist Mill. to Smiths 9 miles good road, indifferent land, but bears good wheat 18 farms on the road 1/4 of them tobacco, the others as in general raising Indian corn principally; oates Rye Potatoes flax &c. Cattle & some horses, the country more open, many places level, no surrounding mountains higher than the road _ from Smiths farm 10 miles, the land inferior, many pieces lying fallow, bearing no grass, but a weed called, May, of a beautiful light green, of which Cattle will only eat the young tops. 20 farms on the road, one of them tobacco, tho Mr Malcolme is on the pitch of the mountain, his well was but 9 feet deep of excellent water. From _ Farquhars Court house hither, the soil grows progressively worse & worse. the land for tobacco manured; there are good species of building trees, but small in bulk, few pines, great part of the soil gravel or sand of a deep red colour, some parts, a small angular white grit, the largest the size of rape seed _ _ _ _ _ _ _

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_ _ _ _ _ _ To Falmouth the Spotted house tavern 9 miles 7 farms; To Falmouth 12 miles 11 farms, soil much the same as last stage. descended a hill 1/4 mile long to Tobacco warehouses & forges on the banks of Rapahanock River, above the falls, which are of a great breadth

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with rocks of all sizes through which the water was dashing against the Rocks, foaming with great noise here are capital Forges where they make bar Iron from pigs & during the war, artificers for arms & all works of Iron. as also a State Tobacco Warehouse with which every shipping place is furnished by government & where the planters are obliged to send all made for sale to be inspected the tobacco is stript of its cask, examined in 3 places at least, with an Iron Instrum. thus [drawing of a spear-shaped object] to take out a sample weighed Cased marked & numbered all which is entered in a book with the weight & quality, of which a note is given by the Inspecter, which is negociable as paper money, should any prove bad it is burnt such surplus as may be left that will not fill a hogshead, is commonly bought by the store keeper, who repacks them in surplus hogsheads for sale. when received into those warehouses, should any be burned, as has been the case, stolen or damaged, the state makes them good. The mountain tobacco is counted the best, if any fine, which is that of a light colour, it is added in the note "Colour," & sells for a higher price. Tobacco pays a duty of 15f 0[illegible], also for searching & picking out the bad. None can be shiped, without such Inspection. here are 40 or 50 houses of artificers &c. from thence passed by the falls to Falmouth, on the declivity of the hill a beautiful romantick spot with trees shrubs meandering path

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