Journal, 1787 June 18-September 4.

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which with the view of the falls is perfectly enchanting. Falmouth is in a bottom close to the falls, 120 or 30 houses & Episcopal Church, on the hill opposite Fredericksburg W Fitzharbest has a handsome seat _ _ _ _ _ _ _

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_ _ _ _ _ _ _ To Fredericksbourgh, crossed the Rappahanoch 300 yards wide (ferry 1p) & a small bottom & rising about _ _ _ _ _

Freddericksbourgh a Borough town of considerable trade goal Court house market house, Episcopal Church an accademy & 350 houses. (many brick) _ a tobacco warehouse the Market house hath a good assembly & 2 drawing roooms over it, water to the town for Vessels of 200 tons, none however can load higher than hobs hole, said to be to encourage drayers raise seamen & for more easily collecting duties. a Fire Society of the first people in town meet under heavy fines for absence once a month, this being the day 60 odd met, excercised their buckets & Engine. Gen Wendell President who after exercise musterd & discharged his troop when we went & spent an hour at the tavern. Col Monro, Col Caster, Mr Day & Mr Chase of the Comp

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_____ To Todds plantation a good road generally level, indifferent land chiefly in pasture, the first farm of M Pages good land, rest inferior here has been a good bread of horses but now not much attended to, they make no hay but feed with corn blades & Indian Corn in stead of oats

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______ To the Bowling green.

from a large flat, 1/4 of a mile in wood then mostly pasture, some indian corn & oats. Mr. Homes who furnishes the Stages owns the Bowling green his farm is in small enclosures well fenced a ditch & rows of handsome red cedar in the fence, kept neat & in [precise?] order, the best cultivated of any on the road _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

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_ _ _ _ _ _ _ To Rawlin's. _ To Buches 11 mile good road, mostly level, some waving land, one half on both sides settled, the other in wood, half pine land, 2 tobacco plantations manured. To Rawlin's 4 mile all open good road. soil & Country as before, 1 tobacco plant-

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____ To Hanover Court house, the road & country much as last stage, in some places more hilly bearing good species of timber, with some pine _ some patches of scurvey pine, 3 of the farms raised tobacco in 8 miles came to a Bridge over Pompunkey Creek, past which is an inchanting spot of rich land variegated with gentle hill & bottom on which are many large beautiful towering trees, in the lawn two poplers 8 & 10 feet diameter, here are rustic seats where the Annabaptists meet for public service, well calculated for meditation, leaving this enchanting spot, land as before, near the Court house 10 or 12 houses _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

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_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ To Nevils - this stage much as the last, of several farms, one only raised tobacco _ _ _ _ _ _

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_ _ _ _ _ To Richmond, the present seat of government. The first 5 miles like the last, in soil, produc= =tion & settlements, then came to a stiffer, stronger soil with large timber trees, when passed a bridge, the soil improving the whole way to Richmond yet wonderful that these are fewer settlements & those inferior to those we had passed, nor was their but one public house, except in the midway, until we came to the outskirts of Richmond _ _

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Upon the hill above the town there are a great number of Scattering houses some of them exceeding good, they are however built in the ranges of streets as laid out in a plan of the town. a handsome large new play house & a large brick Statehouse building. from the hill is a beautiful view of the town, that on the other side of the River off the falls & of an extensive distant Level country

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with the meandering River to a great length, a grand rich prospect. the trading part of town is on the bank of James' river consisting of a main street 1 1/2 miles long & a shorter street parrellel thereto a fire had destroyd one third of the town, which are now building rapidly & in substantial brick houses, between the street & river are large tobacco warehouses to the right of the town next the river several broken hills & large gullies above which are the falls. near the town above 1000 yards over wherein are innumerable rocks of an amazing heigth appearing wild and romantick & of Islands, one of which contain 900 acres & the falls extends 8 miles higher up the Country, the water foaming through with rapid violence. they are now digging a cannal 20 feet wide parraellel to the falls, 2 mile of which was compleated, through a clay & sand poor land when compleat will give a navigation 150 mile back below the falls 13 feet water where ships of 200 tons load. near the middle of the town in the long street is a wooden bridge 112 feet (on which are mills) & 30 feet high, yet the 1st of last June on the freshet coming down the water rose above the bridge & had risen some years past 10 feet above the Bridge

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there are in Richmond 800 house besides public buildings & 4000 white Inhabitants, yet but one Church & that often without service -

_ They ship in James's River, generally from Petersburgh 25,000 [illegible] _ Richmond 9,000 _ Manchester 6,000 _ Osburn 1500 _ Warwick 1000 _ Cabin point 800 _ Smiths 400 _ Hoads 600 _ & Grays creek 200. _ Opposite to Richmond is the town of Manchester the River where the ferry crosses is 600 yards over

The wood land near Richmond belongs to [engrosers?], who cannot settle nor will sell. [Qre.?] would it not be political in a Common wealth to enforce the distribution of wood land above a certain quantity to branches of the family, or to dispose of reasonable tracts, as wanted by purchasers, with conditions of settling & to be valued by a Jury, especially as many individuals are possessed of 2 or 300,000 acres.

The soil from Fredricksbourgh to Richmond if not most of Virginia, is of a light soil composed of clay & sand, varying in quality, mostly of a light colour, or a deep red, after rain. the water that runs through gullies & fishures where it settles in hollows, leaves a white frothy light substance, appearently like suds but of the consistency of East, of a soft soapy feel, q.re if not of a fat oyly nature combined with alkali the wash of which renders the hills poor or barren

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_____ To Bottom Bridge over Chickahominy River good road, sandy, some easy hills

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white & red alternately, 3/4 wood land, slender timber, some spots of pine land, at 4 miles distance M Alexanders farm & house, excellent garden, surrounded with an arbour arched, 8 ft. high 10 wide covered with lima beans that bears in succession 'till the frost, (a fine effect) ___

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________ To New Kent Court house, the first 9 mile better land, from whence might be expected better settlements, but they

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