Journal, 1787 June 18-September 4.

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_ _ _ _ _ To Simpkins tavern or liberty tree. four miles to Youghagani River crossed the river 140 yards over, then rose Allagany mountain steep & long hill, good land tho part stony. then waving stoney land, large timber trees, then level, strong land, small trees, 4 farms hitherto 4 or 5 mile farther, rose Winding hill (from the traverse of the Road) which is high & steep & the summit of the Allagany Mountains, then 2 miles waving land, some part stony some part level alternatety, when came to Simpkins', here it is too cold for Indian corn _ _ _ _ _ _ _

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In the last stage my horse startled at a Rattle Snake that lay in the path coiled up as usual_ thus [drawing of a coiled snake] the body very thick, the neck very slender & with a small head, it kept continually rattling, by pelting it with stone, disabled it from striking when by stones & sticks soon killed it. A man had lately been bit above the knee his leg & thigh, swelled almost as thick as his body & in 24 hours of the very same colour as the Snake & spotted, [yea?] cured by an old Indian.

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_ _ _ _ _ To Little Meadows, or Tomlinsons farm & tavern. (In three miles crossed a Creek) five miles good level land_ a small part stony. several runs of meadow land in sight, then descended a steep stony hill 1/2 a mile, the stones blue & hard, bedded in a light freestone sand, the lower part of the hill with a few small stones, at the foot of the hill a farm. at 6 miles, mounted a high hill good land. the road a traverse at the foot of the hill by a spring met three Light Waggons, with Families &c from the Jersies going to Kentucke taking a repast. ascended a small stony hill, then waving & level land at 9 miles distance a spring & small farm. soon crossed the small branch of little Youghagana River 60 yards over, then ascended a small stony hill, then for 2 miles fine level or waving land, here & there a few stones lay at Tomlinson. his farm is too cold for Indian corn or tobacco, _ _ _ _

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_ _ _ _ _ To Tickles farm + tavern after a descent of a mile & a half good land but stony, came to a Creek _ a small rising, longer descent when came to waving good land at 5 1/2 miles near a spring, is the half way house & here begins Savage mountain. a small gradual rising

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& descent then a spring from whence a rising for a mill _ all good land 1/4 of a mile hilly & very stony, then a gradual descent when come into a fine bottom where is a small farm, here and savage mountain the residue hard stones in white freestone sand & then in Brick mould, in a Bottom where is Tickles & another farm, the former raises Tobacco & Indian corn has 25 head Cattle & wheat weigh 67 lb the bushel _ on each side of Tickles are many farms & 500 familes . . . 11

The methodists preach every day in diferent places. Men Women & children going 7 or 8 miles on week days, neglecting their Families & farms, & which is the only religeous sect in the back country through which I passed

- - - - - - - - To Gwins farm & tavern, crossed a spring a Creek then 3 miles, waving land, some past stony, some a red soil like New Jersey, generally descend. then [2 1/2?] stony still descending some part clear of stone, crossed Braddocks Run, a River 60 yards over when came to Gwins in a bottom __ 6

Braddocks run is a rocky hill 60 or 70 feet high, a kind of Slate the highest rock hitherto seen. here was to be seen several large tracts of land, on which the trees had been burned by accidental fires as before related

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___________ To Fort Cumberland. one mile level 1/2 mile stony having passed Braddocks run twice, ascended a steep hill, stony, then a white grit or sand (the Western hills poor pine land,) then a red soil. here picked up Iron ore, one mile good land, when came to Fort Cumberland where are 13 or 14 good framed houses I thought will rapidly encrease as being at the head of the North branch of the Patomack 100 or 120 yards over

The remains of the Earth fort is upon the hill commanding the turn of the River & the Creek which is formed thus [drawing of a bend in the river, with "Mary-land" "Virginia" "Creek" "Fort" and "the Town" written to identify places] here ends the Allagany Mountains

__________ To old town, crossed the Creek 26 yards over, 5 [1/2?] miles good road, small trees with some pines; inferior land then rode 1/4 of a mile on the banks of the No branch of Patomack, a beautiful large river, adorned with towering trees & some farms on each side the strata of Rocks on the bank inclining 15 to 20 degrees towards the bed of the River, a fine farm in a bottom on the Virginia side, in half a mile on the same side a bold romantick rock 100 feet high, enriched with Shrube= =ry & Trees. in a 1/4 mile left the

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river & at 8 miles distance ascended a hill of fullers earth & Slate, then easey good land to Old town consisting of 30 odd old log house. the methodist parson however has lately built a good stone house of two storey. but 6 sorry farms on Maryland side _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

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NB In the little meadows - when cleared, timothy + clover comes up. they take up + fodder Cattle 5 mo. in the year, sometimes 7 mo. Snow generally 5 mo. Rivers froze as long. less subject to gusts & thunder more moderate than in the low lands. Fogs seldom & soon dispersed. there are innumerable springs throughout the mountains

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_ _ _ _ _ _ To 15 mile Creek & a whisky House. The first 4 1/2 miles good level road, when crossed old town Creek on which a grist mill, in 1/2 a mile _ ascended a steep high mountain on the summit a mile of level road then went over a number of hills some parts stony. for 15 miles poor land, for the most part Pine with other trees, generally small, most part surrounded on every side with chains of mountains in every _ direction. the stratas about 45' degrees, crossed 15 mile Creek & 5 miles further came to a poor farm & Whisky house, where Lodged _

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_____ To the Warm Springs, in Berkly County. Soon fell in again

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