(seq. 40)


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Use original spelling if possible, with the exception of some common contractions and abbreviations, detailed below. Do not note misspellings with sic or any other markup.


Maintain original capitalization if possible.

Contractions & Abbreviations

Expand contracted honorifics and abbreviated names, denoting expansion with {curly brackets}.

While normal contractions (e.g. "didn't" for did not) should be transcribed as written, abbreviated names and certain honorifics should be expanded for searchability. For example, the common contraction of the honorific "Sr" should be rendered {Sir}. Likewise, the anti-honorific "humle Srvt" can be expanded to {humble} {servant}. Consult the Colonial Clues section for more common contractions and abbreviations.

This is the area with the most room for interpretation. Use your best judgment, remembering that the aim is to enhance searchability and comprehensibility without sacrificing accuracy. If you are unsure about a contraction or abbreviation, transcribe it exactly as it appears on the page and move on.


Do not add or remove punctuation–maintain original punctuation marks throughout.

Line Breaks

Add line breaks where they exist on the page being transcribed. Use a single return to mark a line break. Use two returns to start a new paragraph or section of a page.

FromThePage can rejoin words that are broken across lines with or without a hypen, so you should transcribe exactly what you see.

Illegible Text

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Deleted Text

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Use your best judgment for line breaks and other formatting; favor readability over mimicking the original layout precisely.

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Library Markings

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Scientific Names

Transcribe scientific names as written. If any portion of the name is abbreviated, write the full name (Genus species) in square brackets after the transcription. For example, “V. flav. [Vireo flavifrons]”

Chinese Names and Words

Transliterated Chinese names or words should be transcribed exactly as written. Do not modernize place names.