Warren, John. Lectures upon anatomy :.

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Volume containing lecture notes of Harvard Medical School Professor John Warren (1753-1815) beginning on 10 December 1783 for the first course in anatomy he taught. The lectures were delivered in Harvard Yard, probably in Holden Chapel. Warren offers an overview of the history of medicine and anatomy, in addition to lectures devoted to specific parts and functions of the human body, and discussion of dissection. Concerning autopsies, Warren tells his students, "At the first view of dissections, the stomach is apt to turn, but custom wears off such impressions. It is anatomy that directs the knife in the hand of a skilful surgeon, & shews him where he may perform any necessary operation with safety to the patient. It is this which enables the physician to form an accurate knowledge of diseases & open dead bodies with grace, to discover the cause or seat of the disease, & the alteration it may have made in the several parts." "Goldsmith's animated nature," in an unidentified hand appears on the final thirty-nine pages of the volume.

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Arabia. A. D. 721. The Arabian Califs erected a School of Phsyic at Antioch & another at Haran. The Arabians in the 8th Century conquered great Part of Spain & established a School at there encouraged the Sciences A School for Physic was established at Salernum under the Care of Constantine Africanus, a Native of Carthage who travelled to Arabia for Leterature - But here it may be offered, that the Luxury of the Roman Empire, & the Superstition of the Popes were great Discouragements to the Sciences in Europe. Nor did they flourish greatly there till about the 15th Century. In 1459, the Turks Destroyed Constantinople, the Greek Physicians fled with their Manuscripts to Italy & in 1446 the Art of Printing was found out. A happy Discovery for promoting Literature of every Kind. About this Time lived Andrew Vessalius, who opened the dead Body of a Nobleman in Spain, that he might discover the Cause of the Disease of which he died. This bright Genius wrote a large Book upon Anatomy before he was 20 Years of Age, & brough that Science to so great Perfection that it was through it would admit of no further Improvements After Vessalius the Celebrated Harvey of England made great Discoveries in Anatomy. He explained the Circulation of the Blood thro' the Heart, the Use of

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has been justly stiled the Father of Physic. Prince of Physicians - Next to him, I shall mention Hirophilus of Chalecdon, who was the first, that dissected human Bodies, by which he made great Improvements in Anatomy. It is related that at Alexandria in Egypt he dissected no less than 600 human Bodies & so sollicitous does he appear to have been in acquiring an accurate Knowledge of the Anatomy & applying it to the Cure of Diseases, that he even dissected Criminals, while living, hereby expecting more accurately to observe the State of several Parts of the Body when Healthy; & to compare it with the Changes, which Diseases produced But this Cruelty exercised on human Bodies brought Antomy into Contempt for several Ages. And there does not seem to have been any great Improvements made till Galen's time A.D. 131. who was born at Pergamus, & travelled to Alexandria in Egypt the best School at that Period for Improvement in the Sciences But in the 7th century (642) The Saracens formed an Expedition against that City, took it, & destroyed the famous Library there. This Event was great Discouragement to Learning. We find that after this period Physic seems principally to have been cultivated in the Eastern Parts of the World, particularly

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