2 Lect. 1st
Arteries to carry Blood from the Heart & of the Veins to return it. These Discoveries with many others of a latter Date were greatly owing to those sound and truly philosophical Principles for ascertaining Truth delivered by the Great Francis Lord Verulam - born in London 1560 He fully shows the most certain Way of arriving at the Knowledge of Truth both in Philosophy & Physic, is by making accurate Observation & judicious Experiments carried on by just inductive Reasoning & confirmed by other Experiments. The Preparation injection of the vascular System by Rysh with Coloured wax, contributed greatly to the Improvement of Anatomy. Microscopes were contrived & applied by Lavenhoek to discover more accurately the Parts of the human Body. He even affirmed he could discovery 3 Million of Animalecules in the Seed, making only the Size of one Grain of Sand, whose Diameter is ye 1000th part of an Inch & each of these Animalecules to contain a human Being in Embryo. And in Confirmation of this He alledged, it was analogous to the profuse Distribution of Seed in other Parts of Nature. The Discovery of the Lymphake Vessels being independent of the Veins & Arteries, & truly a System of Absorbents is contended for by Dr. Hunter of London & Dr. Munro of Edinburgh. And it is probable, many Valuable Discoveries may be yet made for the Improvement of Anatomy.
3 Lect. 1st
perhaps reserved to Characterise the Genius of America.
Having given You, this short History of Anatomy, I proceed to a Subject, In which I am persuaded, Gentlemen, You have anticipated me. I mean the Use of Anatomy to the Surgeon & Physician. The Study of Anatomy has been considered properly belonging to Men of this Class. Yet it must be acknowledged, that Anatomy has contributed much to perfect the Sculptor, Painter, & Musician. A Knowledge of the Parts, which convay Sound, has assisted in the just Formation of Musical Instruments The singular Use of Anatomy to the Physician & Surgeon is very apparent. By frequent Dissecting Dead Bodies the Surgeon is armed with an useful, a necessary Inhumanity. At the first View of Dissection the Stomach is apt to turn but Custom wears off such Impressions. It is Anatomy, that directs the Knive in the Hand of a skillful Surgeon & shows him where he may perform any necessary Operation with safety to the Patient. It is this, which enables the Physician to form an accurate Knowledge of Diseases & open dead Bodies with Grace, to discover the Cause or Seat of the Disease, & the Alteration it may have made in the several Parts. But here we should be cautious, for all those Changes on preternatural Appearances, we may observe in the dead Body
4 Lect. 1st
might not have been the Cause of Death, but some of them the Effect, & not existed till in Articulo Mortis. E. G. Polypi in the Aorta have been often considered to be the Cause of Death when they have been only the Consequence of it.
Death causing the Blood to Clott The Coagulation having taken place in Consequence of the [??] Other preternatural appearances might have existed, previous to the immediate Cause. It will be useful then in determining whether the Parts of the human Body, which upon opening we observe to be changed, & Whether the Change of these Parts is the Immediate Cause of Death, to consider the Progess of the Disease in the several Stages, Anatomy enables the Physician to discover the Nature especially of incurable Diseases, & to prognosticate more clearly concerning them. To pretend, to operate upon the human Body without a Knowledge of this Science is evidently improper. A Knife in the Hands of a skilful Chirurgion is useful, is humanity, but in the Hands of an Empiric is Barbarity, is criminal. You may easily infer then, how necessary it is to have a thorough Knowledge of Anatomy & How useful this Science is. And here, I cannot forbear, to quote a remark of a Celebrated Author. That Astronomy & Anatomy discover clearly the Attributes of God. By Astronomy, by contemplating the vast heavenly Expanse, we may infer the Immensity of God. And in the wonderful Structure of the human Frame his infinite Wisdom