Warren, John. Lectures upon anatomy :.

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Volume containing lecture notes of Harvard Medical School Professor John Warren (1753-1815) beginning on 10 December 1783 for the first course in anatomy he taught. The lectures were delivered in Harvard Yard, probably in Holden Chapel. Warren offers an overview of the history of medicine and anatomy, in addition to lectures devoted to specific parts and functions of the human body, and discussion of dissection. Concerning autopsies, Warren tells his students, "At the first view of dissections, the stomach is apt to turn, but custom wears off such impressions. It is anatomy that directs the knife in the hand of a skilful surgeon, & shews him where he may perform any necessary operation with safety to the patient. It is this which enables the physician to form an accurate knowledge of diseases & open dead bodies with grace, to discover the cause or seat of the disease, & the alteration it may have made in the several parts." "Goldsmith's animated nature," in an unidentified hand appears on the final thirty-nine pages of the volume.

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The Insensibility attendant on Death renders it much less principal & terrible than is generally imagined

There are six Varieties of the human species

1 The Laplanders, Esquimaux Indians, Samoied Tartars Nova Zembla, Boranders Greenlanders & Nation of Kamschatka 2 The Tartar Race, Chinese & Japanese 3 The Southern Asiatic Indians, [?] & [?] 4 Negros of Africa 5 American Indians 6 Europeans, Georgian Circassians, Migrelians

The Egyptians carried the Art of embalming to the highest Perfection, it was with them reduced to a Science and they had proper Officers appointed for performing the various parts having taken out the [Brains?] through the nostrils they fill up the Cavities with Aromatics, then take out the Bowells which they cleanse & wash in Palm oil, then Roll them in aromatic Powder with Myrrh Cassia & other perfumes & replace them sewing up the Body, then salt it with nitre for 70 Days after which they swathe it in bands of Linnen which was been dip'd in a Gum which they use instead of Salt

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(seq. 222)
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When the friends take back the Body it is put into a kind of [temple?], this the enclose in a Box place against the Wall and preserve it as a precious Relic believing that the Soul exists no longer that the [?] of the Body, some however are deposited in the Earth which is dry & chalky and one Mean of their Preservation near Grand Cairo are to be seen the Catacombs, where the Inhabitants carried on some years ago an extensive Commerce in Mummy as an Article of Medicine a complete mummy was often sold vor 20 Pounds there was no hop without this Article so great was [?] and no Physician thought he properly treated his Patien till he had used it - Pareas at least on it's inefficacy, and the trade is now much diminished - the peruvians hat this Art in great Perfection - Cold preserves Bodies in such Manner that at Spitzbergen they suffer no alteration after having been buried 30 years - The Dryness produced by heat has a similar Effect the Bodies of those that have perished and been buried in the Sands of Arabia conti nue in Preservation for Ages & whole have been found in this state

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The Bodies buried in the Monastery of the Cordeliers at Tholuse do not putrefy but dry in such a manner that the may be lifted up by one Arm - The Bodies that have been embalmed & buried in the Sands of Chorasan in Persia are said Chardin to become extremely hard & continue so for Ages some for 1000 years

[Best?] it appears from a Body Mummy lately dug up in France that the Art was now completely understood in the western world than in Egypt; As some Peasants were digging in a field near Rion what is about 26 of the high Way between that & the River Artier they discovered a tomb about 1 1/2 foot beneath the Surface it was composed of two stones one formed the Body, the other the cover it was of free stone 7 1/2 feet long 8 1/2 broad & 3 feet high the workmanship rude the cover had been polished but had no figure or Inscription, within was a leaden Coffin 4 [?] 7 Inches long 14 Inches broad & 19 high it was filled with a substance resembling butter & a Body in the highest state of Preservation, the sides of the Coffin were filled with an aromatic substance mingled with Clay round the Mummy a Coarse Cloth under it two shirts of exquisite texture, beneath a Bandage

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When all was taken off, it resembled a Body that had been dead only 2 or 3 Days; the Skin had all the Pliancy & Colour of a Body lately dead, the Visage however a little brownish, the Belly yielded to the touch the Joints were flexible except those of the Legs & feet the fingers stretched forth of themselves when bent inwards the Nails entire and all the marks of the Joints visible the Bones of the Extremities were soft & pliant, the hair which only covered the Back of the head of a chestnut Colour & about 2 Inches long. The Pericranium at top was separated from the skull for Introducing Aromatics mixed with Clay with which the Cavity was filled. The teeth Tongue & Ears all in perfect form The Intestines pliant & entire as in a fresh Subject and that breast was made to rise and fall with a pair of Bellows. The embalming Preparation had a very strong and pungent smell which continued for more than a Month after the Body was exposed to the air it was supposed to have been enterred many years

All Animals of the quadrupede kind which according to Buffon amount to 200 may be classed as follows

First those of the Horse Kind

This Class contains the Horses The Ass & the Zebra of these none have Horns

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Horses have no Gall Bladder, do not [?] has six cutting teeth single hoofed - The Mare goes with foal 290 Days the placenta is not fixed, he is hurt by having his Teeth rubbed with Tallow

The second Class are those of the Cow Kind, the Urus, the Buffalo, the Bison & the Bonasus they have cloven Hoofs & chew the Cud

The Third Class is that of the sheep kind, with cloven Hoofs & chew the Cud like the former have horns which are never shed. The sheep, the Goat, the Lama the Vigogne, the Gazella the Guinea Deer & all of a similar form

The fourth Class is that of the Deer kind, with cloven Hoofs & solid horns that are shed every year, contains the Elk, the Rein Deer, the Stag, the Buck, the Roebuck and the Axis

The fifth Class all those of the Hog kind, the Pecary and Babyroussa

The sixth of the Cat kind, the Cat, the Lion, the Panther, the Leopard, the Jaguar, the Cougar, the Jaguarette, the Lynx, the Ounce & the Catamountain they are all carnivorous & furnished with crooked Claws which they can sheathe & unsheathe at Pleasure

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