Warren, John. Lectures upon anatomy :.

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Volume containing lecture notes of Harvard Medical School Professor John Warren (1753-1815) beginning on 10 December 1783 for the first course in anatomy he taught. The lectures were delivered in Harvard Yard, probably in Holden Chapel. Warren offers an overview of the history of medicine and anatomy, in addition to lectures devoted to specific parts and functions of the human body, and discussion of dissection. Concerning autopsies, Warren tells his students, "At the first view of dissections, the stomach is apt to turn, but custom wears off such impressions. It is anatomy that directs the knife in the hand of a skilful surgeon, & shews him where he may perform any necessary operation with safety to the patient. It is this which enables the physician to form an accurate knowledge of diseases & open dead bodies with grace, to discover the cause or seat of the disease, & the alteration it may have made in the several parts." "Goldsmith's animated nature," in an unidentified hand appears on the final thirty-nine pages of the volume.

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The Seal has the largest Brain in proportion to it's Body of any Animal known, even Man [not?] excepted

Carnivorous animals have their Grinding Teeth divided into [??] and Graminovorous we know by their being [?] & [redged?] transversely.

Some years ago two Grinders and part of the teeth of an Elephant was found 42 yards deep in a lead Mine in Flintshire. Those found on the Banks of the Ohio were carnivorous

The Penis of the Camel points backwards

The Sloth like Birds has but one common opening for the purpose of Propagation Excrement & Urine

Birds

The figure of a Bird is nearly that of a [Pigs?] sharp before large in the Middle sharp behind with two Wings like sails to fit it for flying The feathers stand all the same Way and there is a glandular Substance in the [?] with an excretory duct which furnishes an oil with which by Means of the [?] they dry and smooth their feathers, this oil sometimes renders them rank

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In [?] and in Quadrupedes the Muscles that move the thighs and hinder Parts are largest, in Birds the pectoral, the flap of a swans Wing would break a Man's Leg & of an Eagle has been known to lay a Man dead on the Spot

The heads of all Birds except nocturnal are smaller in proportion than in 4 drupedes

Their Eyes are almost as big as their Brains, flat and defended under the outer Coat by a small Circle of Scales of Bone encompassing the Pupil - and they a [rotating?] Mem= brane with which they cover the Eyes as with a Curtain whilst their Eyelids continue open, it arise from the greater [?] they have a particular [?] of the optic Nerve which render their Vision more perfect

Birds have no external Ears, but good hearing

The smell is equally acute

Their Legs hollow - those that have [long? legs have [?] Water fowl have webbed feet

The Sole or [?] stick close to the surrounding Bones & the Trachea opens by it's Branches pours into its Vesicles and [again?] have openings into others in the Belly & the whole Length of the Body so that in Inspiration the whole is filled with air whence they are able to take a large & long Breath, in so the trachea forms a number of Convolutions. The Voice is louder than that of any other Animal in proportion In all rapacious Birds that live on animal food & [?] other that feed on fish the stomach is [?] formed

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is wrapped round with a large Quantity of fat & the Oeso= phagus is furnished a very large number of Glands whose Liquor is excreted for macerating the food

In Other Birds the Gullet dilates just above the breast bone and forms a pouch called the Crop furnished with [nervous?] Glands for moisturing the Grain &c after being mace= rated sufficiently in the Crop the food then passes into the Belly where instead of a moist soft stomach, it is into the Gizzard composed of two pairs of strong Muscles lined with a strong ridgy [Brat?] & almost carti= laginous & by their power grind the food, they make Use of Gravel stones not for the purpose of grinding the food but for keeping the Coats of the stomach from [?]ing against each other

Sloth Birds have two [App.?] [?]; all of the carnivorous & all of the sparrow kind have very small & short ones Water fowl & birds of the poultry kind the largest of all There is another Appendix resembling a little worm which is only the remainder of that passage by which the Yolk was conveyed into the Guts of the Chicken in [Ovo?] The opening of the Duct. commun. choledoch in most birds is at a great Distance from their stomach left in their rapid [?] The Bile should regurgitate as in Men at Sea

Birds have no Bladder, they have [?] large Kidneys

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and Ureters, they drink but little & therefore pass but little Urine, & this distills down into the common bowel which serves for receiving also the Excrement & in females the Penis

In Urine there are two Parts one more serous, the other [Gross?] & in birds this last most plentifully [?] and makes it's appearance in the form of a silver [?] Substance with the other faeces

The [mating?] Season is usually from the beginning End of summer to the middle of Autumn; this is a [?] Period with Birds & the operation is produced by the shrinking and hardening of the feather in Consequence of the Vein & Artery which supply it's [?]ment are compressed & their continuation which forms the [?] is obliterated, whence they are cast oft

In all Birds such Eggs as have been impregnated by the Cock are prolific, others not & are called add[?]

Classes of Birds

Divided according to Linneus System into 6 Classes

First of the Rapacious Kind, distinguished by their Beak which is hooked, strong & notched at the point Legs short, muscular & formed for tearing, toes strong & [?]bed, talons sharp & crooked, body muscular

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Flesh impure, manners fierce, food flesh

they are of five kinds - The eagle kind, the Hawk the vulture the horned owl, the Screech owl, their toes separated legs feathers beak short [thin?] & crooked

The Eagle kind, beak straight except just at the End The Vulture kind by [?] head & [?] he is without feathers The Hawk kind, beak hooked from the very Root The horned owl by the feathers of the [Bill?] standing forward The Screech owl, by no other difference from the last but being without the horn feathers

The ostrich Emu, Casuwary, Dodo seem not to belong to any Class but to be Species of themselves

Eagle The [?] of Eagles are the golden Eagle, the common, the bald Eagle, the white eagle, the tough footed, the white tailed, the [?], the black, the Sea Eagle, the osprey, Jean le blanc, Eagle of Brasil, the [Oroonoko?] the crowned [?] & the Pondicherry eagle The [?] of America, of the [?] & Vulture kind

Vulture The species of Vulture, are the Golden, the ash [?] & the brown of Europe, the spotted & the black of Egypt The bearded the brazilian & the King of the Vultures of South America

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