Warren, John. Lectures upon anatomy :.

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Volume containing lecture notes of Harvard Medical School Professor John Warren (1753-1815) beginning on 10 December 1783 for the first course in anatomy he taught. The lectures were delivered in Harvard Yard, probably in Holden Chapel. Warren offers an overview of the history of medicine and anatomy, in addition to lectures devoted to specific parts and functions of the human body, and discussion of dissection. Concerning autopsies, Warren tells his students, "At the first view of dissections, the stomach is apt to turn, but custom wears off such impressions. It is anatomy that directs the knife in the hand of a skilful surgeon, & shews him where he may perform any necessary operation with safety to the patient. It is this which enables the physician to form an accurate knowledge of diseases & open dead bodies with grace, to discover the cause or seat of the disease, & the alteration it may have made in the several parts." "Goldsmith's animated nature," in an unidentified hand appears on the final thirty-nine pages of the volume.

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Hawk The ancient criteria of Nobility was the [?] of a Hawk, falconry was a practice of Nobility, in this [?] they made Use of Hawks for taking other birds for the table They are the Gyr falcon, the Falcon, the Leonora the [?], the Hobby, the Kestril & the Merlin called long winged to distinguish them from the [Goss?] Hawk the sparrow Hawk the Kite & the Buzzard, the latter are cowardly indolent & obstinate

[?] this & the sparrow Kind is the Butcher bird

Owl Owls are divided into two kinds horned & not horned The Great horned, the common [?] of the latter the [?] Screech owl, white owl, great brown & little brown Owl Great [?] Bay owl or [?]

Second Poultry Kind, white flesh & short strong Beak for [?] up Grain - The common [?], the Peacock, the Turkey, the Pintada or Guinea hen the Bustard, Grouse, Partridge, Quail [?] a beautiful coloured bird

Third Pie kind, under this head are ranked all that noisy restless chattering [teizing?] tribe that lies between the hen & the [?], that from the Size of the Raven down to that of the woodpecker flatter round our habitation

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and as pilferer make free with the [fruit?] of human Industry they build in trees & Bushes

They are the Raven, the Crow, Magpie, Woodpecker, Bird of Paradise, the Cuckoo, parrot, Pigeon &c

Birds in general live longer than Quadrupede, a Raven 100 years The Bird of Paradise is a Native of the Molucca Isles Woodpeckers have a tongue ended with a bony [?] with two bowed Cartilages running backwards to the skull supplied with Muscles, they [?] the Ants &c with the lingua Linneus makes 47 species Varieties of Parrots

The Pigeon is furnished with a crop containing Air by Means of which the throng up the grain for feeding the young like a [??]

Fourth Sparrow Kind, from the Pigeon down to the humming Bird The [?], the Nightingale & other soft Biled singing birds the Canary Bird & other hard billed singing birds, the Swallow, the humming Bird

The Nightingale visits England in the Beginning of April & leaves it in August

Fifth Crane Kind, The Crane, the Storck, the balearic Crane, the [?] - They live among the Waters, but cannot swim in them

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In Water fowl the Cartilages of the Windpipe are next the Lungs which makes their Voices much louder

In the Crane the Windpipe is above 20 times as long as in the Duck or Goose - from the outside it enters through the Flesh into the breast bone which has a large Cavity to receive it, there being twice thrice reflected it comes out again at the same Hole, turns down to the lungs & thus enters the body a second time, hence the loudness of their Voice which may be heard whilst they are in [?] for [?] and the reach of human Eye.

The [Bittuna?] Bird remarkable for a peculiar noise or [?] performs it by means of the wind pipe [?] after [direc?]= ting into the lungs is furnished with a loose thin Membrane which may be filled with air exploded at pleasure

Water fowl Water fowl have feet so webbed that they present a broad surface behind and a small before; their [?] Part Their feathers have an oil which prevents this surfaces [rotting?] thence they are preferred for beds, but in some theiy [?] a disagreeable smell & in general old feathers are [?] double the prize of new - Birds of this kind are the Pelican Gulls, Cormorant, Soland Goose, Penguins [??] of the goose kind, the Swan the Goose the Duck, Kingfisher The Cormorant is possessed of a transparent membrane under the Eyelids which cover the Eye to defend it without obstructing the sight This is necessary considering it's Method of taking the prey which is by darting from a great Height

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In the tame Swan the Lungs are formed in the common Manner in the [?] it is formed somewhat like the Crane - it enters through a hole in the breast bone, returns by the same Aperture, is [?] into a narrow Compass by a broad & bony Cartilage, is divided into two branches which before they enter the Lungs are [?] & [?] into two Cavities In the wild duck the Windpipe where it begins to open [?] the lungs open a kind of bony Cavity where the sound is reflected as in a musical Instrument and heard a great way off

Fishes

Linneus has described about 400

They swim by means of fins

The pectoral fins serve as Oars they are placed a little behind the opening of the Gills, they are large & strong, it's by their help that the flying fish is seen to leave the Water 100 yards they serve also to balance the fishes head - next them are the Ventral fins placed under the Belly towards the lower part of the body these always lay flat on the Water & they principally serve to raise or depress the body The Dorsal fin is situated along the ridge of the back serves for Progression & an Equilibrium, in many it is wanting but in all flat fish is very large The Anal fin lies between the Anus and tail this serves to keep the fish upright Lastly the Tail is the Grand Instrument of Motion Fishes are covered with a Mucus. Scales [?] & then [?]

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The fish is so covered up has to have little sense of All fish have the organs for smelling but this must be by Means of Water is in the taste

Their palate being bony they have little taste

The hearing must be very obscure for no Organs for the purpose except in the whale kind have ever been discovered Their Seeing is the Sense they possess in greatest perfection but from the covering of the cornea with the same skin as the head it is obscure and from the [?]ity of the Lens they must be short sighted

The brain is very small & surrounded with a frothy substance The Maw is in general next the mouth it is cold yet it's proven of Digestion surprising - [?] to Dr Hunters Opinion the stomach possesses a faculty of Assimilation sui Generis

Air is necessary to their life

In Reprisation the Water enters the mouth and is driven to to the Gills, these close and keep the Water thus swallowed from returning by the mouth whilst the bony covering of the Gills keep the Water from going through them, there a proper Quantity of Air is drawn from the Water [after?] which the bony covers open & let the Water out & ready to receive more

The Air Bag is a Cavity sometimes simple & sometimes divided towards the back of the fish & opening into the Gullet This he thinks does not serve for raising the fish but as a [?] of air for Occasional purposes

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