Warren, John. Lectures upon anatomy :.

ReadAboutContentsHelp
Volume containing lecture notes of Harvard Medical School Professor John Warren (1753-1815) beginning on 10 December 1783 for the first course in anatomy he taught. The lectures were delivered in Harvard Yard, probably in Holden Chapel. Warren offers an overview of the history of medicine and anatomy, in addition to lectures devoted to specific parts and functions of the human body, and discussion of dissection. Concerning autopsies, Warren tells his students, "At the first view of dissections, the stomach is apt to turn, but custom wears off such impressions. It is anatomy that directs the knife in the hand of a skilful surgeon, & shews him where he may perform any necessary operation with safety to the patient. It is this which enables the physician to form an accurate knowledge of diseases & open dead bodies with grace, to discover the cause or seat of the disease, & the alteration it may have made in the several parts." "Goldsmith's animated nature," in an unidentified hand appears on the final thirty-nine pages of the volume.

Pages

(seq. 241)
Needs Review

(seq. 241)

The are very long lived and their Ages have been judged of from the Bodies of their Scales or the back bone

A single Cod in one season brings forth as many of its kind as there are people in England Leewenhook says 9,000,000 of Eggs in one throw the flunder is said to produce 1 000,000 & the Mackerel above 500,000

All except whales appear destitute of parental Affection how far they copulate is yet a doubt for though they seem to join yet they have no male external Organ of Generation It is said he imprgenate the Eggs as they fall the male has two Organs of Generation opening into the bladder this contain the milt - they spawn in [?] when the Water is [expressed?] to the [?]

Fish are divided into three Kinds, Cetaceous, Cartilagi= nous and spinous

The Cetaceous are the noblest kind they are the Whale Cachalot, Dolphin, Grampus & Porpesse

These like Quadrupedes have lungs, Midriff, stomach Intestines, liver spleen bladder & parts of Generation their heart the same with partitions & warm blood & all their parts are covered thick with fat or oil they have but one Nostril in the head a little before the brain, internally it is divided & furnished with Sphincters & [?] for the Gullett - It has Eyelids like the human, & has the internal organs of hearing

Last edit 3 months ago by Ardilla
(seq. 242)
Needs Review

(seq. 242)

she suckles her young at the breast as Quadrupedes which are placed as in Women, they have two pectoral fins and one dorsal, they are made up of bone & Muscles, they tails lie flat on the Water, some have teeth & some not -

The scarf skin of the whale is very thin the Cutis an inch thick under this is the fat 3 or 10 Inches thick

The Cleft of the mouth is 20 feet long & the upper Jaw is furnished with barbs that lie like the pipes of an Organ the longest are 18 feet & are the Whale bone, the tongue is almost immoveably fixed to the lower Jaw, the Eyes the Size of an Oxes - the Whale goes 9 or 10 Months with young these have no teeth -

The Narwhal has teeth in the upper Jaw -

The Cachalot has several teeth in the upper Jaw - the [?] have teeth in both Jaws

The Cartilaginous Kind have Cartilages instead of bones they have organs of hearing & Lungs, they have Gills & a heart without a partition thus breathing in two different ways The Apertures by which they breathe are placed either beneath the head as in flat fish, on the sides as in sharks or the top of the head as in pipe fish, to these Apertures two Gills are fixed but without any bones to open and shut them as in the spinous from these bending cylindrical Ducts pass to the lungs & are [?] to convey Air they have not the pulmonary Vein & Artery they live longer out of the Water than these whose Gills are more simple they remain under Water without breath [?] without Water - The male has the Instruments of Generation double & they cuple belly to belly

Last edit 3 months ago by Ardilla
(seq. 243)
Needs Review

(seq. 243)

They are vivoparous or oviparous -

1 These are divided into the shark kind - with a body growinf less towards the tail a rough skin, the mouth far beneath the End of the Nose, five Apertures on the side of the neck for breathing & the upper part of the tail longer than the lower - that Class comprehends chiefly, the white shark, the balance fish the hound fish the monk [?], the basking Dog shark &c

2 Flat fish are distinguished from spinous by their breathing which are uncovered by bone & five on each side - these are the torpedo, skate, sharp nosed [?] thorn back & fire flare

3 Slender Snake shaped kind, Lamprey Pride & pipe fish

4 Sturgeon, Isinglass fish -

5 those that so not rank under those Divisions - Sun fish Tetrodon Lump fish, Sea snail, Chimaera & fishing frog

The shark has six Rows of teeth 72 in each Jaw joined to the Jaw by Muscles which erect them [?] & form a most terrible Apparatus for Destruction, his skin call shagreen

Spinous fishes - they have a complete bony covering to their Gills by which alone they breathe, bone sharp & [?] tails perpendicular

Last edit 3 months ago by Ardilla
(seq. 244)
Needs Review

(seq. 244)

Spinous fishes are divided into prickly fin'd fishes and soft fin'd & each of these into apodal Jugular thoracic & abdominal -

these are divided into fifty [kind?] viz of prickly fin'd soft find each 50 -

I Prickly fin'd

Apodal Trichurus, body sword form, head oblong teeth sword like, bearded near the points, fore teeth largest the fin of the Gill 7 Spines, tailing ending in a Point without fins - China and eastern America

Xiphias or Swordfishes, Ophidium or Gilthead

Jugular Trachinus or Weever, Uranoscopus, Callyonymus, Blennies

Thoracic Gudgeon, Cepola, Corypheena or Razorfish, Mackerel, Labrus, Sparus or Sea bream, Chatodon or Cat fish, Sciaena, Perch, Scorpeena or father lasher, Mullus or Surmulet, Trigla or Gurnard, Cottus or bull head, Zeus or Doree Trachipterus or Sabre, Gasterosteus or Stickleback

Abdominal Silurus or sheat fish, Mugel or Mullet Polynemus, Theutys, Elops or Sea Serpent

II Soft finn'd

Apodal Mureena or Eel, Gympotus, Anarchicas or Wolf fish Stromateus, Amodytes or launce

Jugular Lepadogaster, Gadus or Cod fish

Thoracic Plemonecles or Flumide, Echeneis or sucking fish, Leipidopus or Garter fish -

Last edit 3 months ago by Ardilla
(seq. 245)
Needs Review

(seq. 245)

Abdominal, Loricaria, Atherina, Salmon, Fistularia Pike, Argentina, Clupea or Herring, Exocetas or flying fish Cyprinus or Carp, Cobytes or Loach, Amia, Mormyrus

they all propagate by spawn & breathe by the Gills and only in Water - a single Herring if [?] to multiply unmolested would have a progeny in 20 years greater in [?] than [?] rich Globes as this these have blood, without [?]

Of the Supplimentary tribes of fishes

Crustaceous fishes

divided into the Lobster tribe & tortoise

The Lobster has two teeth in it's [?] & three more in the stomach the spinal Marrow is in the breast bone. they are herma= phrodite and are self impregnated, the Ovary is backward towards the tail where the peas appear in red, from the receptacle pass 2 Canals that open on each side to the Jointures of the shell at the belly through these the peas descend to be excluded and placed under the tail, where they are preserved from Danger till come to maturity, when being furnished with limbs and motion they drop off into the water - in a certain time they become too large for their shells and [?]ally moult the shell bursting at the Joints - und they are at this time very [?] Thus renewed and permormed by means of a chalky substance found in the lower part of the stomach improperly call'd Crab's Eyes The teeth in the stomach break these stones to pieces and the fluids dissolve them They often loose their limbs in Engagement, and they are regenerated

The Violet Crabs live in a state of Society and inhabit the mountains of the Caribbee Island, whence at a certain

Last edit 3 months ago by Ardilla
Displaying pages 241 - 245 of 254 in total