Warren, John. Lectures upon anatomy :.

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Volume containing lecture notes of Harvard Medical School Professor John Warren (1753-1815) beginning on 10 December 1783 for the first course in anatomy he taught. The lectures were delivered in Harvard Yard, probably in Holden Chapel. Warren offers an overview of the history of medicine and anatomy, in addition to lectures devoted to specific parts and functions of the human body, and discussion of dissection. Concerning autopsies, Warren tells his students, "At the first view of dissections, the stomach is apt to turn, but custom wears off such impressions. It is anatomy that directs the knife in the hand of a skilful surgeon, & shews him where he may perform any necessary operation with safety to the patient. It is this which enables the physician to form an accurate knowledge of diseases & open dead bodies with grace, to discover the cause or seat of the disease, & the alteration it may have made in the several parts." "Goldsmith's animated nature," in an unidentified hand appears on the final thirty-nine pages of the volume.

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7 Lect. 1st

Body, to fall into Mistakes. Therefore Books upon Anatomy previous to seeing Dissections, cannot be read with Advantage. The Books on Physiology that may be consulted are Ray Fleming, Cullens [??] Boerhave, Haller on Anatomy [Keils Cheselden?] Winslow Sabatier. [?] & Bell & Cooper. Upon the particular parts Monro on Ostiology, Douglass on the Muscles. Willis on the Brain, Porterfield [??] on the Eye. [??] [?] on the [?] Heisters Cases of Surgery. these may be consulted with Rysh, Morgnani. Eustachius's & Albinus's Tables or Cuts may be useful Yet after all it would be proper for every Physician to refresh his Memory every ten or 15 Years, by attending a Course of Anatomical Lectures, or by dissecting a Subject himself. With rispect to my Method in the following Course Lectures, The Analytic or Synthetic are generally made use of. The former is to consider a Body, as compound, & reducing it to its several Constituent Parts. The Latter views first the constituent Parts & former the Compound. As either of these alone is attended with Inconveniency, I shall make use of both, where the Nature of the Subject requires it. I shall first give a general Idea of the System, then begining with the Blood, Arteries Veins, Nerves, Lymphatics, Receptaculum Chyli, Thoracic Duct, Bones, Muscles, Tendons & Viscera. And here I shall shew a Child whose Vascular System is injected with Wax. I then shall speak of the Organs of Generation & shew some Dissections on the Eye. Having given this general Scheme, I shall proceed to

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Lect 2 1783

Gentlemen,

In my introductory lecture to the Anatomy of human Body I gave you a history of the origin and [progress?] of this Art down to the present State of anatomical Improvement, we [??]- that not only the Students in this Branch of Physic but every friend and wellwisher to his fellow Creatures might learn to whom they are indebted for the important Discoveries that have been made in the different Ages of the World in the healing Art We then adverted to the Utility of a Knowledge in Anatomy to the various learned Professions [?] as several mechanical Occupations, and observed how indispensably requisite it is to some and how to each of them, and that considered as a Branch of General Education many Arguments might be urged in its favor, upon the whole how how large a of Satisfaction our [sublime?] Entertainment it must prove to men of all Employments, and Conditions to investigate the Structure

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8 Lect 1st

a more minute Consideration, beginning if most conveniently with Ostiology, shall shew perform the various surgical Operations, give [?] on Bandages, and then a short Sketch of Midwivery

Lecture 2d. Decr. 19th 1783

The human Body is an Hydraulic Machine, which subsists by constant & determined Motion of ist Humours, in proper Vessels contained in itself, & by which Nutriment is conveyed for its Support & Increase; & like other Hydraulic Machines is determined by the Laws of Motions Anatomy treats of the Structure of the several Parts & OsteoPhysiology of the Use of them. The Connexion between these two Sciences is evident, & you will easily perceive how much it will enliven our the the Subject of our Anatomical Lectures with Physi- ological Observations. The Human Body consists of two parts Solids & Fluids. The Formed are divided into Osteology, which treats of the Bones, & Sarcology, which treats of the Flesh & soft Parts. And this latter is divided into Myology, which treats of the Muscles, Splanchnology of the Viscera, Angeiology of the Vessels, particularly sanguiferous; Neurology of the Nerves, & Adenology the Glands. The Fluids found in the Body are the Blood, the Chyle of which the Blood is formed & those Fluids which are separated from the Blood by Secretion or Filtration These last are of three Classes. The 1st comprehends those which are mixed again with the Blood for different Uses, as the Saliva & these are termed Recrements

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the admirable Structure and beautiful Harmony of the [?] c[??]onent Parts of the animal Machine, and the various Lifes to which this exquisite Workmanship is intended to [?] in the Animal Aconomy.

As few Arguments were requisite to prove the Usefulness of this thing to practitioners in Physic and Surgery the most obvious only were mentioned and were [contented?] [?] with a Recital of those Authors which had treated the most sucessfully on the Subject of Anatomy and Physiology; amongst these were mentioned the Names of Haller Boerhaave [?] Fleming in Physiology, and [Neil?] Cheselden and [?] in Anatomy, with Cowper Eustachio & Albinus in Anatomy, the three last of which are [these?] [?] for the Best Delineation of the parts in their Anatomical Plates - but an Observation they made und which cannot be too often repeated may be again of [?] that in the Opinion of all the greatest Anatomists of the present Ages, the reading of anatomical Authors previous to attendance on actual Demonstrations is by all means to be avoided because No Description can a perfect Idea

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9 Lect. 2nd

2d Those which never mingle with the Blood, & these are turned Excrements.

3d Of those, part of which reenter the Blood, & Part thrown out of the Circulation

As the Fluids are more simple, than the Solids, I shall first treat of them, beginning with the Blood. The Blood in Scripture Language is said to be the Life of the Animal. And Dr. Harvey has a curious Chapter considering it in that Sense. He thinks, it is that Part, in which the Soul resides, the primum vivens, the ultimum moriens. He also imagines the first Motion is in the Blood, & that it throws the Solids into Action. Haller agrees in this particular, & it has in all Ages been looked upon to be the immediate Seat of Life. In the human Subject, it is naturally red, tho' not necessarily so for the Nourishment of the Body, as in the smaller Animals, it is not of that Colour. It is neither Acid nor Alkaline in a Healthy Subject, tho' a little saltish to the Taste, nor is it homogeneous, as it seems at first, but a gummy aqueous fluid, & the greatest part mixes with Water. The specific Weight is a little More than that of Water. The Difference of Weight, however is not very considerable. Boyle computes it in the Rates of 1041 to 1000 Irwin & Master as 1054 to 1000.

If we consider how many Things enter into the Composition of Blood, we shall then be satisfied, that it is heterogeneous. We might really enough imagine it to be made up of a Variety of Parts; in reasoning a priori from our Diet, tho' this is not conclusive. And a Posteriori from the Secretions, which are made from the Blood being very different, as Wax, Bile, Urine, Saliva &c 5

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