Warren, John. Lectures upon anatomy :.

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Volume containing lecture notes of Harvard Medical School Professor John Warren (1753-1815) beginning on 10 December 1783 for the first course in anatomy he taught. The lectures were delivered in Harvard Yard, probably in Holden Chapel. Warren offers an overview of the history of medicine and anatomy, in addition to lectures devoted to specific parts and functions of the human body, and discussion of dissection. Concerning autopsies, Warren tells his students, "At the first view of dissections, the stomach is apt to turn, but custom wears off such impressions. It is anatomy that directs the knife in the hand of a skilful surgeon, & shews him where he may perform any necessary operation with safety to the patient. It is this which enables the physician to form an accurate knowledge of diseases & open dead bodies with grace, to discover the cause or seat of the disease, & the alteration it may have made in the several parts." "Goldsmith's animated nature," in an unidentified hand appears on the final thirty-nine pages of the volume.

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of the Parts let them be never so accurate, and anatomical Plates often convey very erroneous ones along very imperfect ones of their forms and structure and I need not observe how difficult it must be to correct Errors so early imbibed in and so deeply impressed on

There first exhales from the Blood when fresh drawn a volatile vapour with a [?] of fetid odour,between [several?] [?] being catched and condensed it appears of a watery Nature with a small Degree of an alcaline Disposition

Diameter 1/5240 Inch

The last part of our Introductory Lecture contained the General Plan intended to be pursued in the Course of our Anatomical Demonstrations and we divided our Subject into [??] Osteology Myology, Splanchnology, Angeiology, Adenology, Neurology taking a [?] View of the component treats of the human Body as [?] under several Divisions here enumerated We shall might now Gentleman proceed to a particular Enumeration of the [??] Parts which con- [?] into the Composition of each organ respectively,

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10 Lect. 2d

There are three Ways of obtaining the Composition of Blood, 1st by Microscopes, 2d. by Chemistry 3d. by Observations upon it, when drawn from the living Animal, & mixing it with various Sorts of Fluids - Lewenhoek with others who examined them in small Glass Tubes agrees, that the largest Globules are red. Haller thinks, that these Globules are only seen in cold Animals as Fish, Frogs &c. They are said to be nearly the same, as to size in all Animals from the largest to the smallest. Dr. Irvin says that 340 Globules make an Inch in Length. Haller thinks they are still smaller & the quantity different. And is more florid & thick, or more thin & watry in different Circumstances - The red Globules are the heaviest Part, & fall to the Bottom of the Vessel. Dr. Haller is of Opinion that the Heart moves before there is red Blood, he considers the Anima, as the Principle, & the Blood the Instruments, by which all the Functions of the Body are performed. The Antients used to make great Distinctions between the Animus, & Anima. The Animus, they thought, was judged, reasoned &c. but the Anima, they thought was seated in the Blood, & was that actuating Principle, which governed the vital Actions, about which it was wholly employed - The Shape of these Globules are not certainly known. Lewenhoek says, they are lenticular, oval or Oblong. & that they alter their Shapes in Pissing thro small Vessels, tho' it is not confirmed by late Authors. He says, that a red Globule swimming in a thinner

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But as it may not perhaps be easy for such of our Attendants who are just entering upon the first [Princip.?] of this Brands to comprehend the Nature of particular Parts it will be useful as a preparatory to a minute an [signing?] into these to form another Arrangement which will begin with the most simple Parts and [such?] as enter into the Composition of almost every part of the Animal Body, a Number of the first Lecture then will claim for their Subject simple inorganical parts which being generally made Use of in [?] [?]amation of the [??] parts make up the complete the Construction of Organs destined to the performance of the complicated Actions in the animal System. By these Means we shall be enabled to pursue our Inquiry into the form and situation of each particular part without descending minutely into the internal structures of each [portion?] belonging to it, the latter will consider the parts in a [?] [se?]perate and independent View, the former in a dependent and [connected ?] View

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11 Lect. 2

Fluid is composed of six small Globules, which he called Serous; & each of these were also made up of six smaller which he called Lymph & which therefore where the Basis of the Blood, & Dr. Martin confirmes this Doctrine. He says, he could observe, that such red Globules would all [?] [fall?] into their Constituent ones, & thence lose their red Colour & become Serum. This seemed to agree with some Phenomenona of Health as that the Blood is less red in puny inactive Persons, than in those that are more active & robust. The Blood, say they, is compressed by the Action of the Solids, & most so, when the Pressure of the Atmosphere is greatest, when the Pressure is least, the Blood will be more rarified & pass thro' Parts, that are more weak & consequently cause Pain, hence the Reason why People with sore Legs have greater Pain at the Change of Weather from Dry to moist. In the latter the Pressure of the Atmosphere upon the Body being less, the Blood will be rarified, & distend the Parts, so as to Occasion Pain, the Falling Sickness; the periodical monthly Return of this Complaint, they account for in the same Manner. Lehenhock further says, that though he could not disco- ver, that a Globule of Lymph is made up of six smaller, he supposes it probable, nay he went so far as to say, he saw Vessels, that could admit Globules only of the fifth Series. But Haller & the modern Physiologists say that no Vessels, but such as carry red Blood smaller than those containing [?] can be distinguished, the other carrying a transparent Fluid are not to be distinguished from Membranes, hence Luvenhocks Doctrine is Theoretical only.

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As it would be very inconvenient for one who [planned?] undertake to [?] take to pieces the Mechanism of a Clock or Watch to [descend?] interrupt the Course of his Demonstrations, by animadverting upon to the nature of [?] and the modes of operating and tampering them with their respective properties & Uses but would be most convenient previously to define & describe those simple component parts so it will greatly facilitate the accomplishments of our purpose, to enter upon the Investig Inquiry into particular Parts compound Organs of the human Body with such Ideas previously obtained as will gives constitute a general Knowledge not only of an Animal as d as found for the functions of Life, but of those modifications of [?] [?] which are necessary in order render these fit Materials for making up the whole animal Body for another Division vide p14 In pursuing this Intention I shall endeavour to convey my [?] Ideas in the most simple and familiar Terms so as to render them as intangible as possible to those who have never had my Acquaintance with the first Principles of medical Knowledge

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