Warren, John. Lectures upon anatomy :.

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Volume containing lecture notes of Harvard Medical School Professor John Warren (1753-1815) beginning on 10 December 1783 for the first course in anatomy he taught. The lectures were delivered in Harvard Yard, probably in Holden Chapel. Warren offers an overview of the history of medicine and anatomy, in addition to lectures devoted to specific parts and functions of the human body, and discussion of dissection. Concerning autopsies, Warren tells his students, "At the first view of dissections, the stomach is apt to turn, but custom wears off such impressions. It is anatomy that directs the knife in the hand of a skilful surgeon, & shews him where he may perform any necessary operation with safety to the patient. It is this which enables the physician to form an accurate knowledge of diseases & open dead bodies with grace, to discover the cause or seat of the disease, & the alteration it may have made in the several parts." "Goldsmith's animated nature," in an unidentified hand appears on the final thirty-nine pages of the volume.

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(seq. 31)
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(seq. 31)

12 Lect. 2d

Serum is heavier than Lymph, but lighter than red Globules. Blood taken from an Animal in Health soon congeals & afterwards separates into Serum & Crassimentum that swims in it. The Crassamentum when separated from the Serum by [?] inflammable The Serum has generally a yellowish Tinge, & is not Glutinous, but perfectly fluid; they are nearly equal in Quantity in an healthy State tho' not quite so thin as Water, but rather like Milk, if boiled the greatest Part fries like the White of an Egg. When boiling a thin Vapour arises, & also a little Water then remains; likewise when put into Spirits of Wine, it thickens (as does also the White of an Egg) in proportion to the Strength of ye Spirit. and can never again be dissolved; it is disolved by putrefaction in an air heated equall to the natural heat of the Blood and can by no artifice be restored Dr. Harvin observes that Serum is not the same, as the White of an Egg, for if mixed with Water, it does not Coagulate, as the White of an Egg does; but the difference, if attended to, is not so great in this repect; tho' in themselves there is an essential Difference it is by [?] Acids or by [excessive?] motion [congealeable?] into an undissolvable [Glue?] or flesh-like Substance which at Length [?] up to a [?] Substance Boerhave observes, that as Serum is fixed by a certain Degree of Heat, an Animal cannot live in an Heat more [yn.?] 100; which 150 coagulates the Blood, when out of the Body. A Pupil of Dr. Haller's says, that Animals, [?] Dogs, on which he made the Experiment, stood 114 of Heat, the natural Heat of it is about 98° what fixes the Blood out of the Body, will not do it in the Body, it being there Subject to the Vis Vite. The Beauty of Preperations are is injured by strong spirits, as it they coagulates the Serum or Lymph; such Fluids [?] as resist Putrefaction preserve the Beauties of them more, than Spirits, as Salt & Water, Nitre & Water, but they are soon liable to Decay. The Addition of a little Acid to the Preparation makes it transparent by destroying precipitating the earthy Particles. The Serum consists of Water in addition to the coagulable part with a small Quantity of [?]

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(seq. 32)
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(seq. 32)

and it can be no Disadvantage to those who have been a long time pursuing medical studies to revert to the fundamental Principles of their Profession

If any Demonstration of anatomical [Description?] should not be thoroughly understood it is desired that such Inquiries may be made as may lead to the most ample and [?] satisfaction; I could wish no [?] to be used on Occasions as I shall always be ready to contribute as far as lies in my Power to the removing of Doubts and explaining Difficulties which may occur to your Heads in the prosecution of your studies

And you may be persuaded Gentlemen that I have nothing more at [Heart?], than your Entertainment and rational Satisfaction together with the Dignity of the University whose [Integrity?] I am in Duty as well as Inclination bound to [?] together your [lecture?] [?] in the [?]

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(seq. 33)
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13 Lect. 2d

Sizy Blood has a Buff coloured Appearance, & some have thought it to be occasioned by the Heat of the Fever, which as it were boiled & coagulated it; but this cannot happen, as the Animal could not then recover; it must therefore be owing to some other Cause, this Appearance is fallacious coming from a Vein; when the Blood flows fast, it continues warm longer, & the red Globules have more Time to subside to the Bottom, & this baffy appearance then turnes up. This Appearance is owing to the Gluten of the Blood - The Crassamentum has all the red Globules & is the heavier Part, why then does it sometimes swim? because not wet upon the superior Part, but dried by the Air, when it is once wet all over or fall, it never rises again, for the same reason, that a thin plate of Iron or Steel, laid gently on the Surface of the Water, will not sink, but when wet, goes immediately to the Bottom; besides in the red Globules is the fibrous or glutinous Part. It is manifest by Experiment, that the Gluten being taken from the Blood, the rest will remain fluid. While the Blood is cooling, stir it about with a rough Stick by which Means the Gluten will be separated & what remains will be a serous Fluid of a red Colour, which will not after change - When the Gluten is [stieped?] in Water, it comes out rather white, this is the Part, that unites the red Globules, & makes the Crassamentum. There is some similitude between Blood & Milk mixed with [?] - It is not Heat, but Motion keeps the Blood fluid. When this stagnates in the Body, it is resolved

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(seq. 34)
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A General Division into [?] fluids 1 Blood The other Division of our Subjects is into 2 Fibres 3 Muscles, Bones, Cartilages, Ligaments, tendons, Arteries, Veins, Nerves, Lympha[?], Glands, [?] Vessels, 4 Membranes, 5 Fat Viscera

We have in the introductory Lecture this Division considered anatomy as synthetically analytically divided into the six Branches above enumerated, and to their respective Division may each particular Part be constantly referred as they become the Subject of Demonstration in the following Course; all those Divisions have formerly been comprehended under the [?] more general Heads solid and fluid; solids the latter under those of of Osteology and Sarcology - but as we shall generally find zur advantage in an analysynthetical method of describing the Parts of the Animal Body; we are obliged to make Use of a still [?] particular Arrangement, as it respects the constituent part of the System - such an Arrangement is made by considered the whole of those Divisions as offering themselves to Examination under the form of Blood Fibres & [?]

The Blood is to be considered as containing the Principles from which all the other fluids even the solids are formed * and the various Juices of the Body are [?] those principles variously combined in order to produce the necessary Difference in their Nature and properties [??] vid 5 p. The human Body is an hydraule Machine vid. [?] Lect. 2

* The only difference seems to be in the [?]ion of a greater or less number of [?] Particles the Fluid being the most simple Part of the System

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14 Lect 2

into Serum & Coagulum; the thinner Part is again taken up, or carried of & the Glutinous remains; this is manifest, When by a Blow on the Forehead, some of the small Vessels are ruptured & a Tumor succeeds. In Arteries it forms a Polypus, which is at first tender, but afterwards it becomes firm. & when steeped it becomes white; sometimes it runs into the finer Branches & forms long Filaments. In Aneurisms the same Thing happens & it becomes firmer in Proportion to the Time & Pressure because it is inequal [Measure?] without the Circulation [?] By this we may know, what Severinus's Snake was, which he found in the Aorta, or one of the Ventricles, it being only a Polypus & which had accidentally taken the Appearance of ye Head of a Snake, which he has painted as such. - If Blood remains in any Cavity, it becomes firmer the longer it continue without [?] as in the Uterus. If it is not even thrown [?] off, it comes always in Clods, as in Miscarriages, which often deceive Nurses, they taking it for a fleshy Substance, because say they, it becomes white by steeping it in Water It has been called a false Conception or Mole, to distinguish it from the true, because it has neither Child, nor Membranes - And in reality both it & Polypi are only [?]. & not organised Substances having neither Blood, Vessels or Fibres Dr. Hunter had the Case of a Woman who in the 3d Month of Pregnancy was seized with a Flooding, & every Time the Clodders Coagula came away, the Assistants & Nurse thought, it must be Conception, & told the Woman it was over, upon the Dr.s Examination of the Clodders Coagula, He

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