Warren, John. Lectures upon anatomy :.

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Volume containing lecture notes of Harvard Medical School Professor John Warren (1753-1815) beginning on 10 December 1783 for the first course in anatomy he taught. The lectures were delivered in Harvard Yard, probably in Holden Chapel. Warren offers an overview of the history of medicine and anatomy, in addition to lectures devoted to specific parts and functions of the human body, and discussion of dissection. Concerning autopsies, Warren tells his students, "At the first view of dissections, the stomach is apt to turn, but custom wears off such impressions. It is anatomy that directs the knife in the hand of a skilful surgeon, & shews him where he may perform any necessary operation with safety to the patient. It is this which enables the physician to form an accurate knowledge of diseases & open dead bodies with grace, to discover the cause or seat of the disease, & the alteration it may have made in the several parts." "Goldsmith's animated nature," in an unidentified hand appears on the final thirty-nine pages of the volume.

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Lect. 2

Nor Alkaline, but Alkalescent or putrescent, if kept when first drawn, it is neutral - The Antients thought it adviseable to give Salts to thin the Blood - But Mix- tures out of the Body, have not the same Effect, as taken into the Body, for then they suffer the Powers of Digestion, & certainly must be very much altered by undergoing this Change. With Salt of Hartshorn out of the Body, it grows dark Coloured, does not jelly, is of a creamy Consistence, & thinner & with distilled Vinegar, it grows blacker, & somewhat thicker than the first - With Spirits of Sea Salt, if mixed with Water it does not Coagulate - but is of a dark brown Colour & keeps pretty fluid with foliatd Tartar, the Colour is first very florid but upon standing soon congeales, & appears, as Blood not mixed - If Blood after standing a While is not sezy at the Top it is red, & at the Bottom black, probable from the Action of the Air, Also from an Experiment of Mr. John Hunter, for in a Vial filled with Blood, & immediately corked, the Part in Contact with the Cork was of a bright red Colour, owing to a Globule of Air, that had got in. All the rest was of a dark Colour - The Difference between the Venal & Arterial Blood is not so great, as has been Imagined by the Antients. Yet the Blood is of a brighter Colour in the Arteries, then the Veins, owing probably to its brisker Motion, & the greater Action of the Arteries upon it, as Venal Blood shook in a Vial puts on the Appearance of Arterial, hence the Reason, why it returns so florid from the Lungs, as it moves

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The Quantity of Blood and other fluids in the animal Body taken together [succeeds?] that of the Solids and according to a conjecture of Haller the circulating Mass alone in [Man?] is equal to about 50 Pounds weight. 1/5th part being the red Blood current in the Arteries & Veins 1/5 Part of it in the Arteries & 4/5th in the Veins

The Use of the Crassamentum is supposed be that of generating a proper Degree of animal Heat, whence we find the Heat always in proportion to the Quantity of it being greatest in bad [?] and athletic Men The Use of the Serum is to [?] Nutrition [?] to the Parts and of the Lymph & thinner Juices to [?] the Matter of [?] Nutrition

[?] [?]

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18 Lect. 2d

more briskly thro' them - [?] may it not also be owing in some Measure to the Effects of the Air, As its Effects out of the Body cause that Appearance. The Antient Physiologists imagined the Arteries carried vital Spirits, & the Veins red Blood, being ignorant of the Laws of Circulation

End of Lec 2 1783

Lecture 4th 1784 Feb 20th

Of the Arteries.

An Artery in an animal Body, is a strong ramefying Elastic Tube Pipe, that rises from the Heart, & goes to all Parts of the Body, in this Sense there are but two Arteries, viz the Aorta, & pulmonary Artery, the latter distributes the Blood to the Lungs, the former to every Part of the Body besides. The Blood in these two Arteries is supposed to be very different. In the Aorta it is fit for Nourishment & being deprived of its nutritious quality in its Course thro' the Body, passes thro' the Lungs to be elaborated again , & made fit for Nutrition. Artery in Greek signifies Air Cup. Definition The Bronchia being made up of Gristles, & being therefore roughish, was called Aspera Arteria, till the Time of [Erastrites?] the Arteries and Veins had the same Appellation, viz, they were both called Veins, but the Arteries were called Pulsatile for Distinction, & it was he, that first called them Arteria. for Texture & Coat read p 21 The Section of the Blood Vessels both Arteries & Veins, when filled with Blood is round, except just at the Ramefication & there it is Oval or Elliptical - The Aorta from the Beginning to the End ja conical, become smaller & smaller in its Course, but the Dimension of all the Arteries taken

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Direction of their Branches

Anastosmoses

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19 Lect. 2

together is greater than that of the Trunk, & therefore there is a constant Enlargement upon every Ramefication. The space between the Branches was thought by the Antients to grow smaller from the Heart constantly, but from Observation it is found, that in many places the Difference is exceeding small; nay Dr. Hunter says, it has appeared to him to increase in size; but Mr John Hunter with Malphigi, thinks they grow rather smaller; but it is very inconsiderable at any Place, where we can make the Observation this being very difficult by reason of the frequent Branchings, the Carotid is the only one in the human Body, where such an Observation can be easily made. Branches go off chiefly in an Acute Angle, tho' some go off nearly at right Angles, the latter are near the Heart; the former towards the Extremities; & in general, as they branch nearest to the Heart; the more they approach to an obtuse Angle, & the greater this Distance from the Heart, the more acute is the Ramification - We have not quite an a perfect Instance of an Artery's being reflected, so as to form an obtuse Angle by its Branches; the Epigastric has been said to be such a reflected Branch; but if we examine it, we shall find, that it goes off in less than a right i. e. acute Angle, & is gradually reflected, to as to run, directly, in a Course, backwards to that of its Trunk - The Branches from Anastosmoses are frequently at right Angles, i.e. where they open into one another, which they often do & form a kind of a Network - Branches of Arteries are different appearance from those of , in that they unite again, [?]

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