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0211

{Left margin, top of page: "Logic 2"}

knows just what he wants, and to regard the achieving act as his final purpose. It may be not until old age reduces his energies that he begins to ask what all this doing has been for, and to see a value on knowing as knowing.

{Left margin, next to the first sentences of the paragraph below: "A manufacture of theories."}

A theory directly aims at nothing but knowing. Maybe, if it be sound, it is likely, some day, to prove useful. Still, fairness forbids our making utility the criterion of utility the excellence of the theory. One must acknowledge that such a way of thinking would not abase logic, as it does the generality of the sciences; for to judge of logic by its applications would only be to judge of it by how far it does, or does not , in a certain manner, help us to understand things. Now clearly, it is the proper aim of any theory to do that. But this very consideration tends to show that the touch-stone of utility is superfluous and impertinent for logic. For suppose the science supports the test; what then? That would merely show that it aids the

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