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California H245

Geo M. Hanson Yuba City, Cal. July 23, '61

Entd

Reports in compliance with office letter of June 1st last, rel. to changes deemed necessary in the existing laws &c

Recd Aug 19, '61 File

Special 19 Mr. Herle

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Office of Indian Affairs Northern Dis. California Yuba City July 23rd 1861

Hon Chas. E. Mix

Sir In answer to your letter of June 1st 1861 concerning the present laws and regulations connected with your department, and the changes that are deemed necessary — I beg leave to say.

Not being in possession of any of the laws, (which I would be pleased to have sent me) I cannot give you an answer, based upon my personal knowledge of the defects, or changes therein necessary, But upon information otherwise obtained, I am of opinion that it is of first importance to the interest of the Indian work in California that the following changes be made Viz

2nd The laws should be so changed or made as to protect the Indians against kidnapers. There is a Statute in California providing for the indenturing of Indians to white people for a term of years. Hense under cover of this law (as I think unconstitutional) many persons are engaged in hunting Indians (see my report of this month) even regular organized Companies with their Pres. Sec. & Treas. are now in the mountains and while the troops are engaged in killing the men for alleged offences, the kidnapers follow in close

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persuit, Seize the younger Indians and bear them off to the white settlements in every part of the country filling the orders of those who have applied for them at rates varying from 50 to 200$ apiece, and all this is being done under a plea of "kindness to the poor Indians" which acts of injustice and violence are now tolerated by an unconstitutional law (as I believe) of this state. (see my last report)

3rd The law should provide that in the selection and permanent establishment of reservations for indian purposes, they be made in districts of country shut out by mountains, and other natural barriers from the white population entirely. Demonstrations abound in California, that in the contact of the two races the indian soon falls a prey to the demoralizing vices of the unprincipled white man; dissease and death following in the train

4th As an antidote for such evils, I beg leave to suggest, that all the troops stationed on those reservations be removed, and their stations turned over to the use of the reservations, and in lieu of said troops, to increase the laboring force, providing them with fire arms and other means of defence, and that no other officers or laborers shall be employed here after on said reservation except such as have a wife along with them

The example and influence of married white men

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cannot but have a happy effect among the indian woman and their rising posterity, and they can be made verry useful in the instruction of the women in the cutting and making up clothes for themselves and families, and also by teaching their children the rudimentary branches of an english education.

From my personal observations I know the effect produced by a contact between the two races, is any thing but desirable, honorable, or proffitable, as demonstrations abound, in the shape of half breeds jealousies disease and death on every hand

In connection with this, allow me to say, an increase of the wages of the laborers is indispencible in order to procure competent married men and their wives, 75$ pr month will be necessary

5th That no provisions or supplies be furnished to the employes by the Government, except that which they produce on the reservations

6th A Special act enlarging the Round Valley and Klamath reservations (See report of this month) and the enclosed memoranda of boundaries also the silling [selling] out of the Noma Lackee and Mendocino reserves together with an appropriation sufficient to pay the settlers in Round Valley

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for their improvements and removing them who now cultivate their farmes with Indian labor, and many of them use Squaws for housekeepers, and this state of things cannot be prevented if they are allowed to remain, and I am told they made those settlements at the instance and by the premission of one of the first agents of Government

The laws should be so changed as to give efficientcy to the efforts of the new superintending agents of California and a sufficient appropriation at once made, to place the institution in a respectable light before the Country, and make it a desirable and happy home for the poor indians. As hitherto conducted, the indians have looked upon the reservations rather as a hell than a home, and when they talk about their future spirit land whare deer and fish abound, among other blessings of that land, they aver that the white man can never get there

7th A Clerk, Black Smith and Physician is indispenceable on each Reservation

Should any thing else occur to my mind of importance I will advise you of the same

I have the honor to be your &c Geo. M. Hanson Supt Ind Affs N. Dist Cala

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