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No. 64 California H477
Geo M. Hanson San Francisco, Cal March 31, '62 Entd
Reports in relation to the trespasses of settlers on the Nome Cult or Round Valley Reservation — quiet among the Indians — losses by high water — necessity for cattle on the Reservations — Importance of providing for the purchase of Smith River Valley — Delay in rendering his a/cs
Copied Ackd July 24th 1862 File Land
[stamp] RECEIVED AT THE June 25 1862 INDIAN BUREAU
Office of Indian Affairs Northern District Cal San Francisco March 31, 1862
Hon. Wm P. Dole
Sir Nothing of unusual importance connected with Indian Affairs, has occurred in the Northern District of California since my Special report of 14th of Feb. last, with the exception of continual, & additional trespasses committed by the settlers on the Nome Cult, or Round Valley Reservation, in Mendocino County, rendering it beyond a doubt, that something must be done immediately, either by law, or military force, in order to prevent the settlers from entirely breaking up one of the best Indian Reservations in California.
I placed this matter before your department, on two, or three former accasions, informing you, that nearly all of the best pasture lands in the valley, the most of which Government has under fence, has been entered upon by settlers, surveyed, and purchased, by them
from the State, as "swamp, & overflowed lands", thereby destroying the best pasture, cutting down the best timber, and continually throwing down our fences, and exposing our crops to destruction. I have not been able to get the Legislative protection from the State, and again urge upon your department to instruct me in the course I shall pursue in these difficulties.
I have hitherto urged the propriety of paying all the settlers in the valley for these improvements, and then remove them entirely out of the limits of the Reservation, as before proposed in its enlargement.
Peace and quiet generally prevails among all the numerous Tribes within the District, occasionally a few cattle are killed by the Starving Indians, whose lives, as others, entirely innocent, pays the forfeit, an damages.
I have been unable in consequence of excessive high waters, in the valleys, and deep snows in the mountains, to visit the Reservations since my report in last month, but I am fully convinced that owing to
the early and continued rains thro' the Fall, and Winter, and thus far into the Spring, we will be unable to harvest a very good crop, the ensueing season. On no former occasion since the first settlement of this country, have the farmers, & stock raisers ever met with one fifth part of the loss they have sustained the present Winter and Spring seasons.
Hundreds have lost both their Farms, and all their stock of Cattle, Sheep, & Horses. Such indeed has been the general destruction, that years will be required to redeem it. How far the Government has shared in this universal calamity, cannot be fully ascertained until the waters leave the valleys, and the snows the mountains, that dilligent search may then be made for the living.
These losses are greatly detrimental to the Indian Service in California, from the fact, that Beef, is the great staple of Indian subsistance, and it is to be much regretted that an ample supply could not have been procured while the prices of
tame cattle ranged so extremely low; about 1000 head of females with their increase, on each Reservation would be ample to supply all the milk, and Butter, together with Beef, required, without diminishing the original stock.
Again I beg leave to urge the importance of a sufficient appropriation of money to secure the "Smith River Valley", for an Indian Reservation to supply the loss of the Klamath, as stated in my Special report of 14th of Feb. last, for without such provision is made the Government must suffer great loss, and about 2,500 Indians be entirely destitute of a suitable home. And in connexion with this, we want money enough to pay the settlers for their improvement at Nome Cult, in Round Valley, and the removal of them away from the Indians. These two Reservations will be sufficient for all the Indians from Oregon, to the Sac. Valley inclusive, and the amount of moneys arising from the sale of Mendocino & Nome Lackee Reservations, would go far towards replacing the money the Government