Pages That Need Transcription
Geo M. Hanson San Francisco, Cal April 19, '62 E
Informs of completion of his a/cs — reports rel. to the gloomy prospects for crops — necessity for funds — economy practiced &c —Enc. printed acoount of the trial of Woodman
File Mr. Clark Finance
[stamp] RECEIVED AT THE June 26 1862 INDIAN BUREAU
OFFICE INDIAN AFFAIRS, NORTHERN DISTRICT, CALIFORNIA. San Francisco, Apl 19th 1862
Hon Wm P. Dole.
Sir. To day I complete returns of property, Abstract of Disbursements & Account Current as far as they can be completed at present to the close of the past year, and in future I hope it will not be found necessary to incorporate the returns of two quarters in one. But up to the 13th of Nov. I had no means only what I borrowed on my own account, consequently winter setting in early, have been prevented by floods & snow from visiting two of the reservations up to this day from late in the Fall.
My returns closing the 1st quarter for this year, are also prepareing, but cannot be completed untill I return from Mendocino & Nome Cult, whence I set out on teusday. The most inauspicious season for favorable crops ever known at this time of the year we now have in California. It has been raining in the valleys and snowing in the mountains with but little intermission since Nov. last, and the farmers have not yet sowed their wheat
and Barley that should have been sowed in Nov — Dec — or Jan last. I have given instructions however, to sow wheat Barley and oats until the 1st of June: But oweing to the long duration of Winter our old and mostly wornout teams, are too poor & weak to effect much in the way of farming.
Our supplies on the new location are nearly Exhausted, and except I am soon placed in funds, the "Smith River Valley" will be destitute of Bread Stuff & Vegitables. I purchased Hogs & Cattle enough to suffice for the present, and can procure an abundance if authorized to do so; for the credit of the indian department in the Northern Dist. has not been so good for many years.
In my returns, you will find I have used the strictest economy, considering the confused and reduced condition in which I found every thing when I came into office.
I must hurry to Humbolt again as soon as possible for I fear, the kidnappers & soldiers are going to make cruel havac [havoc] among the poor indians. Enclosed please find an account of the trial of "Woodman", apprehended in Ukiah. He has sold more than 200 children in the last 3 or 4 years — I have succeeded in having the odious law for indenturing Indians repealed (at least it has passed the House) — I have the Honor to be &c G. M. Hanson Supt &c N. Dist
[banner crossed out] Our Northern Indian Dilemma
(FROM OUR REGULAR CORRESPONDENT.)
ARCATA, Humboldt Co., Cal., April 2, 1862 EDITOR HERALD AND MIRROR:—I feel strongly impelled to write something in reference to the efforts the Goverment is at present making to relieve the people of this and adjacent counties from the depredations and dread of the Indians. I have watched all movements and operations of both citizens and soldiers, taking into account the expressed sentiments of the former, for the last three months, have traveled about in infested districts, from all of which I am forced to the following conclusions, which the end of these troubles, whenever it comes, will prove correct. In the first place, if the Government does seriously intend to subjugate or capture and remove these Indians, it must either send a largely increased force, sufficient to occupy every Indian haunt, all of their fishing and hunting grounds, and every, almost inaccessible, gulch, and glen of the thousands which abound in this mountainous country, in which they can hide, or it must offer some extraordinary inducements—say so much per head, including women and children—to those who will discover and lead the Government forces upon their hiding places, or it must employ a large number of bloodhounds to run the savages down. It is perfectly nonsensical to suppose that it ever puts the Indian to any inconvenience to elude any number of soldiers, led into his locality, by the most expert guide—the country is peculiarly rough and affords every facility of attack and escape to marauding Indians, especially to tribes and individuals acquainted with all it wildest and most unexplored regions. There are thousands of places where the trail is so narrow, deep, steep and crooked, that the wayfarer could be struck down with a knife or bludgeon and never see his assailant. There are many ravines and gulches so deep and narrow that a party might be assailed at a distance of only 200 yards, and yet, if he wished to reach the point of the assailant he would have to ravel miles and consume much time to do it. Of course numbers, unless very great, do not obviate such a difficulty. But, there are plenty of men both among the whites and also among the friendly Indians over in Hoopa Valley, who would, if offered a handsome bounty, go out alone and soon find these Indiance hiding places, their numbers and the condition of the locality, and then with authority to report to the nearest military post, our small force being always ready, could with some confidence, quickly and silently, march on and surround the foe. The result cannot be doubted. The most however they can attempt now is to afford a little protection to the trails. The officer in command of the district should have power to employ such persons, their payment to depend on their success, and until some such plan be adopted, or the forces largely increased, there will be nothing done that will not be an injury rather than a benefit; for if a few of the Indians get killed, they may depart from their strange forbearance exhibited during their last raid upon Angels' and Bates' and intermediate and adjacent ranches. The week that they were devastating these places, they had from twelve to tweny women and children in their power, within reach of their rifles; but I have conversed with them since their escape, and cannot learn that one of them was harmed or offered to be harmed. One family (Goodman's) the husband sick and helpless, with the wife and four little girls, lived only a little over a mile from Angels' Ranch, and were entirely exposed and unprotected at that time, yet the Indians, though a long time in accomplishing their purpose at Angels', did not molest them at all, but waiting until the family, very much alarmed, fled, about thirty-six hours after, and then the Indians went and burned the house. But as if that was not enough to silence and bring the blush of shame to the cheeks of Indian killers of this county, this same family had another strange escape from teh same Indians (as supposed). When they fled from their own house they went to Bates', and were there when Bates was killed near his house, and his dog wounded came back to the house and laid down to die. Yet, although they must have had plenty of time, they did not come to the house until after all the women and children, some eight or ten including the family before mentioned, got away from the house and down to the river near by, where they waited 15 or 20 minutes before they were ferried across by two men from the opposite side. Thus have they shown themselves much more humane than their white persecutors. From all of which it is not natural to conclude that to pursue a cruel policy and kill a few without the means to prosecute the war vigorously and end it shortly, would be to insure retaliation; and the sacrifice of every one of the many still exposed constantly on the trails and on the ranches whose hardy occupants feel still compelled to remain and work that their families may not starve.
The last outrage was committed only about six miles from where I am now writing (Bates'). I mention this to show their boldness and audacity; and all their recent ravages have been [article and transcription continues on next page (5)]
[transcribed to this point on previous page (4)] I mention this to show their boldness and audacity; and all of their recent ravages have been committed since the troops (companies F and K 2nd infantry) marched into their territory— passing near and taking post within a few miles of the scenes of their depredations. The sooner the Government comes to the conclusion that it has a great and important matter in hand— when it essays to redeem this and adjacent counties from the dominion of the Indians—the better for all, and the more economical. But it had better wait until it is ready to proceed with adequate means. It would be much more humane and beneficial to all, to use the present meagre force (excepting the scouting alluded to, be adopted) entirely for defensive purposes, such as guarding the trails, furnishing escorts, and protecting the most important localities so far as it will go, than to be wearing itself out, and putting the Government to an immense expense for transportation, etc., etc., hither and thither to localaties already ravaged, and in the vain pursuit of a foe whose whereabouts they have not the most distant idea, and means of locomotions as compared to their own, is like that of a cow to an Arabian racer. Everybody seems to have the greatest confidence in the fitness every way of the officer who at present commands in this district, Col. F. J. Lippitt, and in the officers under his command, with some very few exceptions, and to give him every chance to render any service, the Government ought to supply him with a regiment more than he has; with funds, also that he might work secretly if he desired, with large discretionary power. But I am afraid my letter is already too long to be of use.
Yours, truly, PROBOSIS
P.S.—I cannot forbear adding a postscript, in which I would advance the opinion that they never will have permanent peace in this country until all Indians are so far removed from it that they cannot return. Those still friendly should be the first ones removed, because they can be captured now without bloodshed and with much less expense removed. Remember, they were all friendly once, and might forever have remained so, but for their far more implacable, unrelenting, and merciless foe, the brutal white Indian killers, who are numerous in those parts, and a far greater curse than any other description of savages.
Further Concerning the Indian Troubles in Humboldt.
The Humboldt Times says Capt. Akey has begun the work of gathering up the vagabond Indians found lurking in and about the settlements. A party of forty -two of all ages and both sexes arrived at fort Humboldt on the 10th. Two bucks who did not obey at the word, were killed. The Diggers, according to the Arcata correspondent of that journal, continue to commit enough depredations to keep the fires brightly burning. The killing of the stock is so common that it no longer attracts attention except for a moment, and to be shot at while traveling to of from the mountains begins to be an expected occurence, a part of the trip.
Of stock, all that was at Bates', including several horses and mules, work oxen &c., were killed and left laying, on the morning of the attack, and since then they have killed animals on Liscom's Hill, and wherever and whenever they have an opportunity. On Sunday morning last they attacked Oak Camp, where Pratt's train, bound for Hoopa, was encamped, and after driving off the three men, appropriated such of the cargo as meeted their wants, and burned the remainder. This occurred within a short distance of Fort Anderson' whose greater force was on a scout, leaving but a small guard in camp. A small party, however, pursued and succeeded in killing one Indian and wounding others. A few days since Hank Smith and Dan McDougal were shot at several times while driving mules from Kneeland's Prairie, and our friend Jenkins ran the same gauntlet at Redwood.
Painter's house on Kneeland's Prairie, with farming implements, &c., was burned the past week; a detachment under Lieut. Hubbard went in pursuit.
About five miles from Zehendner's has lived a man named Patrick Regan, who owned stock which he himself herded. He had not been seen for two months, and on Thursday, 20th March, Mr. Zehendner visited his ranch and found his cabin burned to the ground, while near by feeding his horse which he always rode when he left his home, thus leaving no doubt that here fell another victim to the curse of Humboldt county.
The Times complains of a want of activity among the soldiers. Fifteen deserted week before last for Cariboo.
A young Indian in the service of Robert Blum, at Eureka, a few days ago, in the absence of his master, took forcible possession of a gun and some ammunition and ran away, having previously frightened away Mrs. Blum and her children.