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[Transcription of left column]Treaties recorded in a book recently opened for the purpose. Feby 1852
[Transcription of center column]California W. 644[1851/W644]
O.M. Wozencraft, of San Francisco, California Sept. 30 [1851?]
In relation to treaty suggestions with California [Ind???] the policy [po????] with suggestions inferring [thoughts?]to reservations for indn members of the latter -- Enclosing three original letters, accompanied by estimates for fulfilling stipulations, also [illegible] [??tuly?] [between?] for [illegible] [mats?] for [3 qt?] [illegible] allottment of [asst?] [illegible] for beef cattle furnished [illegible] negotiated [illegible] [illegible]
[In pencil: Copy for Beale]
Recd 3 Nov. 1851Treaties [illegible]for record
[Transcription of right column]of country showing land allotted to Indn will be forwarded-- Unsettled acct & requests recd consequence spoke of-- Last appropa. of 23,000 at hand but isseparate to [individual?] acct of Agt R. Mckee, [now about?], \but who left authority to be turned overto him $1500, which has beenspent, leaving him without means to pay Secy'ssalary-- &c
California C 53James M. Crane to PresidentWashington Feby 2 1852
About faithless conduct of IndianComm. in California -- miners claims -- Contract of Fremont & Lange -- personsdesired to be appt. Supt & Agents -- propriety of [illegible] Disct Atty - the marshall &c
Referred to Court of Indian Affairs[illegible]March 11, 1852
Rec'd Indian Office 13 March '52
Washington Feb 2d 1852Hon. Millard FillmorePresdt of the U States
Dear Sir, I send you this morning two other communications which I ask you to read. I wish them as strictly confidential especially for the present. They will be amply substantiated by others. I wish you [tact?] understandingly and I wish all I state[sustained?] by others. I hope you will inquire of Frederick [Betthngs?] the [gentleman?] I [prepared?] to fill the office of U.S.District Judge made vacant by the death of the late Judge Jones. Senator Gwin says he will readily advocate his confirmation in the Senate and that the nomination will be approved by the Senate.Very respectfullyJames M. Crane
To the President of U StatesWashington DC.
Interior,Feby 20 [faint: Washington] Feb 20 1852
Hon. A. H. H. Stuart
The [fact?] that the Indian Commissioners have been unwarrentably remiss and faithless in the discharge of their duties in California is well known to yourself . In many of the reservationswhat they have [laid] off for the benefit of the Indians, they have included a considerable portion of mining lands. To [illegible] the [little?] of miners they have obligates the government to pay for whatever [damages?] a [number?] of arbitraters might decide upon. These claims amount to several hundred thousand dollars. There are now [well?] over two hundred thousand in the hands of the [exisitng?] Marshall and [McCinkle?]. After the battle if these miners have been [illegible],other miners in [illegible] of thereservices have been permitted fora [certain?] rate of [illegible] [illegible] [illegible]in their reservations [illegible] [illegible] is not necessary for [illegible] [illegible] and illegal and a [panic?] uponthe government as well as upon the
miners [illegible] even as the miners find that these claims will be [illegible] they will be indignant at the Comissioners and [may?] [lay?] [violent?] [hands?] on them- Besides they will forthwith according to the custom of the miners claim [their?] [illegible] mining claims in these reservations. This will bring on a difficulty between the whites. The Indians will be driven off and they [illegible] will [loose all faith in the government. I look for more trouble from the acts of the Indian Commission in the [illegible] and the government than you all can possibly [suppose].
The contract that has been made with Fremont and Lange -- for supplying the Indians with beef is tr[illegible] [illegible] certain [illegible] twice as high as it can and as it has been offered for in California. Mr. J. D. Kingis every where charged as one of the contracting parties. I consider this whole affair as a most barefaced fraud upon the government. Mr. McKeeis openly charged with having made use of the money you gave him for the travel he sailed for California for his own use. The amount I believe
was $25,000 When I [illegible][get all?] there I [will?] [own?] accounts in from California you will have a sum either to pay orrepudiate which will astonish you. Oras you will disatisfaction must follow I made a [illegible] The [illegible] of the [while/whole?] of them and a signed investigation with their conduct. Under the bill now before Congress I see that a [illegible] is [illegible] [illegible] and made three agents. I have [illegible] with all the Californians here whose judgment I value and they desire the [illegible] for[illegible] appointee. Hon. George B. Tingley for Superintendant. Maj. Peterson B [Rawling?] [agent?] for the northern part of the state. Lieut Beale for the Contracts [illegible] [illegible] been selected for the Southern. These men will be [readily?] endorsed by [Dr?] Gwin Marshall and McCirkle. No one [illegible] ought [illegible]them in California and the government may [illegible] trust them.
If you [rescind?]Ma. Benham as District? Attorney and I think he might [illegible] [illegible] for he is totally incompetent. I would strongly recommend Gregory Yale Esq. for [illegible], and[illegible] know him and with much
[illegible] endorse him as an able lawyer and [illegible] of the highest character and integrity. His distinguished standing at the bar made give the government credit and respect in the eyesof our [people?]. He is a total [abstinence?] man. [Douglass?] the Marshall might be [reminded?] this [deputy?] is a [illegible] [L??] [illegible] and gives all the [patronage?] and[illegible] by the office to the [L???]. [illegible] the principle means of [Given's] election to the Senate and says he will[illegible] [illegible] be[illegible] to have him re elected [illegible] [illegible] [illegible] Marshall is Government [illegible]. If he is reserved and I soluemnly [illegible] again to his [illegible]in offices I will give you the name of a gentleman who will fill his place with accepatance [illegible] government and the people.
Very respectfully James M. CraneEditor of [Cala?] Courier
Sonoma California October 28th. 1852
Sir In your reply of the 7th August 1851 to me of the 1st June you encourage me to further communication with your department. and would cheerfully availed myself thereof as this, but nothing of peculiar interest had occurred in this district respecting Indians but as some recent events threaten [illegible] disagreement between the white population and the Indians and [illegible] like similar acts heretofore terminate in loss of life as well as serious expenses to the government which if taken in time as easier prevented than remedied. I take the liberty [illegible] [illegible] of addressing your honorable department-- There are to be found in every [illegible] and society some sordid base and unchristian beings who value the dollar gained no matter how dishonorably, more than the tranquility and happiness of a nation. And it is with regret that I have to say there are many such in California. The Indian chiefs are complaining to me [illegible] of certain depredations committed on them by the white population, and although I still retain the office of a justice of the peace, and that the legislateers [legislators] in one of its acts gave Magistrates some power to act abjudicate between white people and Indians, nevertheless it is [illegible] unpleasant for one individual to make himself [officans?] in a district inhabited chiefly by Missourians and [originians?] [illegible] whom and the Indians there seems to exist a perpetual feud of the cause I am not aware
[Left] I have got much ill will heretofore on account of being the only justice of the peace in this district who took any measures to tranquilize the hostilities existing between the white population and the Indians and particularly as I issued warrant against the men who murdered the Indians in [Na???s] and Sonoma Valley , about two years since and which required the military to settle the difficulty by killing a number of the Indians at Clear Lake of which your department is already aware. it seems as if Indians were [illegible] from the benefit of any law here their afficavits are not taken [against?] a while [illegible] (perhaps very justly) they are very often maltreated and ill used, cheated and driven almost to desperation. One have found to expanse their part as to punish the offenders, and being so destitute of cash they are unable to employ a lawyer to obtain for them justice or redress and California lawyers will not work without money, and if any one is found humane enough to take part in obtaining for them justice he is [cried?] down as a friend to Indians and an enemy to Americans. Now see if this increasing evil is not shortly removed several lives will be lost and enormous expenses will be incurred by government and the satisfactory conclusions which might be obveated [obviated?] if some prudent measure were taken by the government. those very Indians to whom I located some lands lats year in Russian River complains that last season in order to learn husbandry and to acquire some grain for their support the chiefs made an agreement with some Americans to permit them to occupy the land, that the Indians would work, and receive a share of the crop- besides some clothing but that now when they demand their share they receive nothing under a pretense that the Indians had stolen some barley from them. The Indians declare that the few bags of barley which was found in their possession was [????red] by the squaws and children and not stolen.
now they are left destitute of any means of support for the winter being too late to plant, or gather acorns or other vegetables and [illegible] and they have no alternative but steal or else go to the mountains and clear lake to encroach on the wild Indians and being so many near seventy families and as formerly perhaps avenge their [illegible] on the innocent- there are another rancherio of Indians due west from here in Bodega to whom I located a mile of land and lately some covetous individuals built a house close to their village and is occupying the land they heretofore [illegible]. They applied to me but our laws are as yet insufficient to expel squatters till the final decision of the land commissioners. Now sir in cases like these there should be some provision made by government for the protection of these children of nature and [illegible]- them being [illegible] thus inhumanely. In addition I will insert a presentment made by the grand jury of the court of [illegible] in los Angeles County October 9th- Instant [she?] [illegible] that among other grievances many difficulties arise with the Indians for want of a proper person to listen to their complaints and redress their grievances. They seem to be [illegible] from law and justice, and we would suggest that a competent person skilled in the Spanish language be appointed to superintend the Indian Affairs generally, to settle the difficulty between them and their employers, as also among themselves with power to inflict moderate chastisement, such an approvement would furnish the Indians some securiy from oppression, and would relieve them from taking law and punishment in their own hands. Now sir if a part of the power now conferred on the Indian commissioners agents and sub agents who are chiefly occupied in the mountains and mines at great expense
and little benefit to government were conferred on resident citizens, say one in each county or perhaps in some locations one for two or three counties, defining their power and duties allowing them a moderate compensation and placing a certain sum in some fund for the benefit of the Indians and to [illegible] law expenses where extremely necessary, would in the opinion of many, tend more towards securing peace and harmony between them and the white population. Then all the armies sees against them on the confines, or all the enormous sums of money said to have been expended in giving presents to the wild Indians +c to these half civilised [civilized] and exasperated Indians such as I have described leaving their settlement and going among the wild Indians full of wrath against the white population, will excite more hostilities in one day than otherwise occur from the wild Indians in a year as if some measure similar to that I have proposed be not immediately taken, the consequences may be deplorable as some conciliatory means would be preferable to warfare from the extent of frontier [illegible], the act of sending the military the thousands of opportunities afforded the Indians of committing [illegible] [cruct??] another emigrant, miner and land prospectors &c as well as the unthinking travellor [traveler]; So that it behaves government to adopt some measures in the mean time, besides pacifying them with presents or punishing them with hostilities, either or both being so expensive to the treasury- I hope sir you will excuse the foregoing liberty I have taken in proposing any measures to a department so eminent for wisdom &c I remain very respectfully your most obedient servant Peter Campbell
[Written on lefthand margin] C381 J
San Francisco March 1. 1852Hon. Luke LeaCommnr Indn Affiars Washington CitySir,My last letter of 17th ulto. accompanied my account as disbursing Agt., vouchers &c. My previous letter of 12th Feb per Col. J. B. Weller acknowledged rept of your circular of 8th Jany--which is the last communication, I have had from your office.Since I wrote, I have recd from Mr. Geo Gibbs his report or journal, of the expedition to Northern California, accompanied by a very beautiful map of the country traversed, and sundry vocabularies of the languages spoken by the tribes we visited. These I designed sending to you by the mail which takes this,--but our friend Genl S. D. King of the Land Survey Department, is making a copy of the map, & the Senate Committee on Indian Affairs, desires me to afford them a reading of Mr. Gibb's views as to the reservations made for the Indians, at a meeting appointed for the 4th inst. I think you will find the journal interesting, and the map, only Correct Deliniation of the country, [instant?].-- Mr. Gibbs has presented me a bill for the latter of $500; which [illegible] thinks himself fairly entitled to, for the extra labor he has bestowed upon it.- As which, I have not felt myself ay liberty to approve, without instructions-- Then you will please225 [check]