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cut off the heads of their opponents with as little ceremony
as they would tread a worm under their feet, and for the
sake of liberty. When one party was crushed, the others
cried out, the republic or liberty is safe. When another
party fell under the guillotine, then the trimphant party
shouted liberty is safe. But after all the republic was not
saved; and all parties at last were glad to find peace and
security under a throne.

Intelligence alone then has not yet saved any republic.
But intelligence, it is said, must be accompanied with virtue,
and these united are to give duration to a republic.

Now, Sir, what is this virtue; what does it mean in the
sentiment or opinion above cited? What did Montesquieu
intend by virtue, when he wrote about its influence in pre-
serving a republic?--Spirit of Laws, passim.

The virtue of a Roman citizen consisted in personal
bravery, and in devotion to the defence and extension of the
commonwealth. In particular men there existed a strong
sense of right or political duty, which may rank as a
moral virtue. But such instances were rare, and most rare
in the decline of the commonwealth, when the citizens were
most intelligent. But in general, the virtue of the Romans
was a passionate attachment to the commonwealth, for the
grandeur of which they fought and conquered, till they had
brought the civilized world to the feet of the republic. This
virtue extended the dominion, but did not secure the exist-
ence of the republic.

If by virtue is intended the observance of the common
social duties, this may proceed from a respect for custom,

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