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Paper Used Winston Salem Journal April 1938 NEGROES IN WINSTON-SALEM AND NORTH CAROLINA
Almost any data twenty-five years old about Negroes in ancient history. A statement of progress among the group in nearly every field of human endeavor would be unbelieveable if there were not at hand indisputable facts to support it. in the city of Winston-Salem alone, if the full measure of development in business, industry, education, homeownership and all the rest, could be told, it would surprise and no doubt greatly please even the best informed white citizens of the city.
The history of Negro education in Winston-Salem, as will be seen from another article in this issue of the Journal-Sentinel, is a thrilling story of growth and development. Opportunities for education in the city offered to Negroes cover the entire range from the first grade, even the Nursery school, through elementary and secondary school, and a first-class four-year college.
There are five excellent well-organized and well-taught elementary schools. These schools accommodate 4,841 children and cost $942,518.
The Atkins High School is one of the best high schools in the Southern States for either race. It is one of a half dozen schools in the South which received large contributions from the Rosenwald Fund. As an aid in building and equipping this handsome structure, and making it possible for teaching vocational subjects that would be useful to Winston-Salem, the Rosenwald Fun gave $50,000.
The Winston-Salem Teachers College, a state-owned, and statesupported instiution, founded by its former President, Dr. S. G. Atkins, is a unique college, and is rendering service to most of the counties in North Carolina.
N.C. College for Negroes Dec. 5, 1937 "Education Moves Ahead" or "The College Responsible for Leadership".
Even a casual survey of conditions in North Carolina will prove to any thoughtful person that education moves ahead. This is true for the whole population, and for each racial group in the State. On a cheering occasion such as this, it is obviously proper to speak mainly of the progress and needs of Negro education. What progress has been made ,and what are the urgent needs?
The people of North Carolina today are attempting to see and to understand their State as it is. They want to know what are the essential facts in our life which face us now. How may we understand them and deal successfully with them?
And so, in discussing Negro schools we want to deal with them on a factual basis. We cannot measure our Negro schools by the schools in the rich states of Massachusetts and California or other similarly wealthy States. A sort of standard for education in North Carolina is found in the present status of schools for
2 white children.
Measured by this standard we find some most encouraging facts. In seven items Negro schools in this State are almost identical with the standards in white schools. In 1935-36 these were:
1. The length of the school term. There was a difference of only .6 of one day.
2. The teacher-pupil load. In elementary schools a difference of only .2 of a pupil. In high school, 2.4.
3. Programs for training and certification of teachers are the same.
4. Courses of study and accreditment of elementary schools - identical.
5. Courses of study and accrediment of high schools - identical.
6. Average daily membership - white 92.4; Negro 89.2 - difference 3.2.
7. College curricula on minimum levels are the same.
On these seven points programs in white and Negro schools are almost exactly the same.
Differences in some cases - wide differences exist in six items of the state educational program:
1. First and foremost, the size of the school unit - 809 consolidated districts for white children - two-thirds of school population -; 2252 school units for colored children - one-third school population.
2. Very limited transportation for Negro schools;- 3700 busses for white children, about 450 for Negroes.
3. Inadequate high school program for Negroes.
4. Buildings and equiptment very poor in many cases for Negroes.
5. Salaries of teachers; the differential is considerable.
6. No provision for professional or other instruction for Negroes on graduate levels.
A comprehensive program of gradual consolidation would in a few years eliminate four of the items in which there are now wide differences, viz: the size of the school unit, provide adequate high schools,
increase transportation, and improve buildings and equipment.
The other two items in which differences exist, viz: salaries and graduate instruction can and will be eventually adjusted by the wise patriotic statesmanlike leaders of both races in North Carolina.
Perhaps it is not too much to say that the responsible leadership in North Carolina in government, in education, industry and in all other groups is definitely thinking of, planning for, and is committed to a policy and a program of providing at the earliest possible date educational opportunities for all children of whatever race that will be equally effective in training boys and girls for citizenship.
As one unit in the State's program of college education for Negroes this Institution now occupies a strategic position. With its greatly improved physical plant, its large student body, its well trained faculty, its outstanding president, who is a born leader, and the splendid support given it by the great city of Durham, it can and I believe will aid