1859-05-05 The Courant



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THE COURANT. A Southern Literary Journal. HOWARD H. CALDWELL. Editor.] "Sic vos non vobis." Wm. W. Walker, Jr., & Co., Proprietors. VOLUME I. COLUMBIA, S.C. THURSDAY, MAY 5, 1859. NUMBER 1

For the Courant, THE SOUL-CONFLICT BY PAUL H. HAYNE. I. Defeated! but never disheartened! Repulsed! but unconquered in will.— Upon dreary discomfitures building Her virtue's strong battlements still, The SOUL through the seige of Temptations Yields not unto Fraud, nor to Might, Unquelled by the rush of the Passions, Serene 'mid the tumults of fight. II. She sees a grand prize in the distance, She hears a loud voice of acclaims, The crown wrought of blooms Amaranthine, The music far sweeter than Fame's, And so 'gainst the rush of the Passions, She lifts the broad bucklers of Right, And so, thro' the glooms of Temptation She walks in a splendour of light.

Written expressly for the Courant, THE TRIADS, OR, IS ONE MORE THAN THREE?

In my youth I had been intimately associated with Henry Morton. He was my senior by only two months, and the similarity of tastes had made us the best of friends. We sat together in the classes at school, we took our music and French together; and at the catechetical instructions of the Church, we invariably sat side by side. Mr. Morton, the father of my friend, resided at the other end of the city, nearly two miles from our family mansion. Henry and I, from this circumstance, spent, generally, two or three nights of every week together. I said just now that we were drawn to each other by similarity of tastes; I am not sure that I ought not to have said absolute identity of tastes. Whatever pleased one, was sure to please the other: one never found in the library at home a book which pleased him, without making haste to carry it to his friend: in fact, our fathers called us Orestes and Pylades; and sometimes, David and Jonathan. From our ninth to our sixteenth years, we lived in this manner; at this latter date, we entered college together. Of course, we roomed together, studied together, read thought, visited, in short, we lived together.

In our senior year, Morton—who was, perhaps, a little more bold in such matters than I was—openly disputed in the recitation-room the perfect correctness of the Bible accounts of the creation, and asserted in very strong terms, the doctrine of "diversity," as relates to the origin of the human family. The professor was a miserable bigot, who never could, or, at all events, never did, argue on these topics; if, in fact, he had argued the question, I am sure that Morton would have relinquished his objections. He was one of that class of men who are easily persuaded by those whose talents and virtues they admire; but the professor, in a very angry and insulting manner, commanded him to sit down, calling him a "precocious infidel, a foolish smatterer." The result was, that Morton left college and went to Europe to finish his studies. I had hoped to go with him, but it so happened that it was impossible. He went to Germany, and at Gottingen, Heidelberg and Berlin, for five years, listened to the instructions of the first men of this age, who charmed him by their subtlety and vast erudition.

For two years he corresponded with me regularly, and in that time adopted most of the conclusions of Frank Newman, and constantly quoted to me the "Phases of Faith," as entirely unanswerable. At the beginning of the third year, I found that he had been studying "Moehler's Symbolism," and his letters showed much more liberality towards the Roman Catholic doctrines. I received only three letters from him during this year ! and in the last of these, he informed me that he was just balancing the point, whether he ought to join the Roman Church. "Protestantism" he said, "is a system of endless contradiction and disintegration. I am sure that nine-tenths of mankind never can be able to interpret for themselves, much less to decide, the knotty and vexed questions of the canon, plenary inspiration, or the historical, moral or scientific difficulties of the Book itself. And yet, the doctrine of Church-infallibility does not prevent all sorts of sexisms from the body Catholic; look at the Greek Church, look at the English Church; nay ! read the history of the last eighteen centuries; it is one record of heresy and schism!"

In spite of this saving clause, it was easy to see that his tendencies were all in the direction of Rome; he wrote so much about the conversions of Schlegel, John H. Newman, Ives, Brownson and Wilberforce, and with such gusto the sayings of eminent Roman Catholic controversialists, that I at once concluded he would join the Church. His next letter, written about six months later, said nothing at all about religion, in a phase of doubt or belief: but he wrote a long, impersonal argument on a new German theory of Causation. This was the last letter that ever reached me.

Meanwhile I had changed my place of residence and, as I met the Morton family very seldom, I heard very little of my old friend. Indeed, the last two accounts which I had from his father's family concerning Henry were very discouraging. He was publishing a book on aesthetic subjects, and, in the opinion of his family, was certainly going mad; moreover, he seems so enthusiastic, in his last letter, on the subject of the beauty and genius of an English lady whom he had met, that they expected him to bring home a bride in the person of his adored Miss Travis. For my part, after reading his letter (to his mother) while on a visit at D——, I returned here very much distressed on account of his terrible eccentricities; to which, I could see no possible termination, except in madness.

Poor old Mrs. Morton had been sadly shocked when her son first expressed his doubts as to Christianity; his father, who was no Churchman, merely shook his head; but now they wept together, for they attributed all of his strange conduct to his ever-changing round of opinions. I returned with a heavy heart, for I, too, was convinced that Henry's was a hopeless case.

One day, about fortnight after my return, the little messenger of the telegraph ran up into my office with a despatch. I broke the envelope, and read:

"DEAR MR. LITTLETON:—If you ever were the friend of Henry, for God's sake come here immediately."

The despeatch was signed William Morton

The train was to leave in an hour's time. I made my arrangements hastily, and at twelve o'clock I left home, reaching D——at three o'clock in the afternoon. Of course, I hurried instantly to Mr. Morton's residence. The mother of my friend met me at the door, and led me into the first parlor, dismissing servants with a charge not to tell Henry that I was in the house. My wors fears were aroused by this, adn the sad brow of Mrs. Morton seemed to confirm them.

"My dear Madame," I said, "you know that I would do anything in the world to benefit Henry—tell me, how can I serve him?"

"Alas" replied she, "my poor boy acts so strangely: he says he must die this week, and he has frightened us all by showing the reasons why it is unavoidable."

I was completely dumb with amazement, when Mrs. Morton resumed:

"He said that we was engaged to be married to Miss Travis, but that he discovered in his studies that this week he must die, and that he had told her all, and hurried home to breathe his last in our arms. He begged me to send for you by Friday, but I would not wait, and here we are on Monday night!" She smiled, half-hopefully, thinking how long it was until Saturday, and how certainly we would persuade Henry out of his notion by that day.

Just now, Mr. Morton entered the apartment, and testified his great pleasure at meeting me. "Melancholy is our condition, "said the good old man, "poor Henry has a strange 'method in his madness,' and has convinced himself that he must die at the end of this week."

"Horrible delusion!" I answered; "but pray tell more by what sort of reasoning has he arrived at such a conclusion?

"He has," said Mr. Morton, "what he calls the doctrines so of ternary influence, or the power of the triad. I cannot exactly explain all his reasoning, for to me," he said, very sadly, "to me it is all sheer nonsense. Perhaps you may be bale to understand him, and may God grant it ! to refute his terrible doctrine. He has made a vast calculation, embracing all the dates of deaths, births and marriages in our family, as far as it is possible. By this calculation, he says, he finds that one member of the family must die every three years. The facts, as to our history as a family, I confess it, all prove his point. Then, he says that all our records show that the children of each family die in the following order: the third dies first, the second or fourth dies next, and the first dies third. He is, he says, the next victim, because he is our eldest son, and we have lost our third son, and our second child, a daughter. He says, moreover, that the deaths occur always in march, the third month, and always on the third day of March; both of which things are strictly and alarmingly true. To-day, Monday, is the twenty-sixth of February, and next Saturday will be the fatal third of March! It may be some one else, for our's is a large family, and unless Henry's imagination kills him, I cannot think that there is any reason to apprehend any danger. He never was very stout, as you know; but he looks now as well as usual, and walks elastically, sings with a full, clear voice, and his pulse perfectly healthy. But he seems intent on dying at the appointed time: in fact, he regards it as a fixed, unavoidable fact; withal, he is very much puzzled about his future date; sometimes he talks of sending for a clergyman. though refuses to see those who call. He has promised to receive the Father Ambrose, an old friend of mine who is now a ?, a man of wonderful ability, great piety and colossal leading. But I fear that he will change his mind before tomorrow."

"Where is Henry?" I asked.

"I just left him sleeping on the couth in the library. He takes hardly any sleep, and I was only too glad to leave

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him there. Come," said Mr. Morton, "come and look at him as he sleeps. But, for God's sake, do not make any noise."

We walked on tip-toe to the door of the library: Mr. Morton very gently pulled it open, and we entered.

The friend of my youth had changed but little since I had seen him last. His long, glossy locks of raven-black hair were brushed back, and displayed his wide, prominent forehead. In truth, I have never seen so intellectual a face as that of Henry Morton. His perfectly-cut features, the fine aquiline nose, the delicate chin, the maidenly mouth, the beautiful white brow, all looked superbly in his present position. His left hand lay upon his broad chest, and on the third finger glistened a large, antique diamond ring. Just before him, and immediately beneath the magnificent chandelier, was a large round table, covered with books of all sizes and descriptions; and among them, were prints, photographs and various manuscripts, some on letter-paper and others on large legal cap; the latter, I saw at a glance, were the lucubrations of my friend on the most serious and unanswered difficulties of society as it exists, and the great interests of life. I looked at the ponderous volumes which lay upon the table; there lay Iamblicus, Censarinus de die natali close by the works of mystical Origen and irresistible St. Augustine, surrounded with Paracelsus, Albertus magnus and Scaramello's "Directorium mysticum," hard by Lammenais, Mœhler and Newman. This motley collection showed me precisely what afflicted my friend; it was, I thought, too much study, too much thought. While i was moving around the table, a volume of Origen fell heavly on the floor and aroused him from his sleep. He sat up on teh couch, and instead of rubbing his eyes or looking at all surprised, he arose almost instanly, and advanced to greet me. His father left the room, unobserved by Henry, who was entirely occupied with me. Of course, a few minutes at the beginning were extremely unpleasant. I knew that he must have understood why I was there, and he hesitated, beacuse he literally knew that I was about to take issue with him on the subject of his idiosyncrasy. He began, however, to tell me about the various charms of Miss Travis' mind, person and manners; and, after detailing most circumstantially his adventures and pleasures in her company, he paused all at once, and hurriedly paced the room. I felt that this was the trying moment, so i said nothing, as I saw that Henry was embarrassed beyond measure. After a few minutes' pause, he said, "I would have married her, except for the fact—that—that—I must die so very soon."

"Die so very soon!" I answered,—nonsense! you don't look like a dying man."

He stopped suddenly, and looked at me with a wild stare, as I said that, and then turning to the library, took down a large black volume, which I saw, as he laid his hand upon it, was a Bible.

"Once," said Morton, in a hissing, thrilling tone, "once, the fashion was to find out the fates of men by "sortes Virgilianæ;"--our family solve them by Bible-lots. I closed my eyes, I prayed for Divine help, I opened the book, put my third finger on a place on one of the pages, and then I opened my eyes and read this sentence, 'A THREE-FOLD CORD IS NOT QUICKLY BROKEN.' This you will find in Ecclesiastes, the fourth chapter and twelfth verse. This was my lot, when, with two of my fellow-students, we opened the Bible to see our fates: and both of their's have been already fulfilled.

"But, Henry," I interrupted, "how does that prove that your death is so near?"

He looked sadly at his costly volumes, and said, with a sigh—"It is the fate of our race; the ternary influence is irresistible; all things happen to us by triads. Every marriage, every birth, every death in our family occurs in some triad: one member of our race is married this year, two others are sure to be; and so of births; but, alas! of deaths the rule is different—one MUST die every third year, on the third day of the third month. In our whole record as a family, there is not a single exception; and they die thus; the third son dies, then either the second or fourth, and the first child must [die] third. The third child of my father died six years ago, [the] fourth died three years ago, and the first must die on next Saturday." He opened the large family Book, and at the [ready] showed me the dates, all of which were precisely as he had said. I sat perfectly horror-stricken with silence.

"My friend," said Morton, "do not look so sadly; I must die, and I know it. I hope that I may be ready to give my account. Still, I scarcely know what I ought to believe as to the future, for I have read dispassionately all the views of every sect, and every section of every sect, and while, as yet, I accept none, I can see the same truth glimmering through all; evil must be punished somewhere, good must be rewarded some time. If I be wrong in my judgement, I cannot help it—'religious in mine error'—I must be convinced that I am wrong, as my first duty is Loyalty to Truth. With me" (he spoke in a melancholy tone,) "Faith and Reason, Authority and Individuality, are always at war. They fight, too, as the Choctaws fight duels—their left hands are tied together, so that one must fall, or, perchance, BOTH."

"Our's is an ancient family," he said, quickly and evidently wandering in mind, "very ancient, and our records all show this fearful influence of triads. Pardon me, I forgot that I had commenced to tell you my precise religious standpoint: however, I might as well not speak at all of that, as I am still in darkness on all these topics. I have [read] in all schools, and while I believe in none, altogether, I see truth in all. Trillistos! trillistos!!" he exclaimed, in a louder tone, and paced the floor rapidly. "Love! Love! unutterable ænigma, bliss and curse of man! Oh, how I loved her, my friend, and yet, in vain. Not that she was indifferent to me; no, would to God that she had been! She returned my frantic passion, and even now, after I have told her that I must die, I fear that she will come, and make my death even darker and more sad by the passing flash of her glorious presence. My God! incomprehensible three in one, why was I ever born?"

He walked rapidly back and forth, displaying in his movements a beautiful figure, perfectly moulded, slight round and admirably proportioned. I thought a moment of his superb physique, his well-known moral traits, and his astonishing mental powers, and I said to myself, "if ever man deserved pity, this is he."

Morton now ceased to walk, and, after a moment's hesitation, he looked into a volume of Epiphanius, and, turning abruptly to me, said: "You are too good a scholar for me to undertake to instruct you that THREE was the perfect number of the ancients. Hermes, my master is called, as you know Tismegistus: three were the Fates, the Graces, and three times three (in triads separate) the Muses. God himself is a mysterious union of Three in One, according to any doctrine of Christianity. Day has her triad, morning, noon and night; Time has her's, in tenses past, present, and future; Life has three divions, youth, manhood, age. So, also, our history will have three parts, birth, death and resurrection; the archangels are Michael, Gabriel, Raphael: three are the orders of the Church: bishop, priest and deacon: three kings of the East came to adore the infant Saviour, and the name of Antichrist has the number 666! Triple is the tiara on the brow of the soverign Pontiff, 'thrice holy' was the cry of 'Sanctus,' and Peter denied his master thrice. The powers of the mind are three, Imagination, Reason, Memory; the three studies of grammar, logic, rhetoric, make up the trivium, and woman's holy life is in three divisions, when all is experienced of change on earth, as maid, wife and widow. On the tripod the oracles of old were announced, the triplet is the glory and the ænigma of music, the tri-color is the oriflamme of Liberty! Great minds are only in triads; see, for example, the three great masters of human sympathy are Homer, David and Shakespare; the chief of the sublime poets are Æschylus, Dante, Milton; the leaders of Philosophy are Aristotle, Bacon, Kant.

Our religion has its three periods, the Adamic, the Mosaic, the Christian; three were the representative men of Christ's gospel, John, Peter, and Paul; three were the prophets who had clearly foretold him, (and yet called the three greater,) Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel; three were the great doctors of struggling Christianity, Jerome, Augustin and Chrysostom. Three were the great orators, Demosthenes, Cicero, Mirabeau; three were the great [world-sub?], Alexander, Cæsar, Napoleon; three the great historians, Thucidydes, Ivy, and Macaulay, (they will rank alike, a century hence) three, the great artists of poetry, Euripides, Corneille, Goethe; three great poets of love, Anacreon, Petrarch, Beauger; three were the suffering penitents, the Baptist, St. Simeon Stylites and the Abbe Rance; three are the great days of the Church, Christmas, Good-Friday and Easter; three were our great American statesmen, Calhoun, Webster and Clay; so in Sculpture, in Music, in Painting, in all their sub-divisions, all go by triads; three is the perfect number, and I can prove it to you."

Here Morton's manner became perfectly wild with excitement; he showed all sorts of strange sentences culled from Origen and Scaramello, from Augustin and Paracelsus, from Albertus magnus and Aristotle. I was completely amazed, and gazing vacantly at the floor, when suddenly a low, moaning, female voice attracted my attention. Poor Morton was too busy with his references to observe anything else, and consequently I could make my observations without at all disturbing his occupation. I looked around, and at the door of the library a young lady, apparently about twenty years of age, stood wringing her hands in despair. Her large, lustrous eyes were swimming in tears, her cheeks flushed, and her beautiful brow knitted with sorrow and surprise. She was in her traveling-dress, and I at once concluded that this was none other than the beloved Miss Travis, whose advent poor Henry so much feared. I made an imploring sign to her to retire, and to do so as quietly as possible. She instantly comprehended my meaning, and left the aparttment as silently as she had entered, while Henry was eagerly quoting from Origen, what to me seemed a most mystical, far-fetched explanation of a matter which concerned no human being in any possible particular.

"You see from this," he resumed, with great earnestness "that three represents in itself unity, opposition, and the combination of the two; thesis, antithesis and synthesis. Thus, all things have three parts, beginning, middle, end: all heavenly bodies rise, culminate, set: all things as to locality are above, amidst, or below: as in Christian perfection we find three elements of Faith, Hope and Charity. Three were the angels that visited Abraham, three were the friends of Job, three were the tabernacles of Peter; three are the angels in Apocalypse who are yet to sound the trumpet; on the third day Christ arose from the dead; three were the classes of men in the great Parable of the Samaritan; thrice was Paul beaten. Three-stringed was the magic lyre of old; three-forked was the trident; three-headed was Cerberus, and three-fold the virgin Diana. Well might the wise men say, funiculus triplex difficile rumpitur.' This three-fold chord, so hard to break, binds my fated race, and without the possibility of escape; and on next Saturday, to fulfill this mysterious doom, I go to complete another triad."

He paused for a reply: but, seeing that I was lost in doubt and utter irresolution as to what I should say to him, he hurriedly said, "And yet, the wisdom of all ages has said 'Love is stronger than death.' On what was that strange saying based? was it because a friend would gladly die to save a friend? because the world knows of a Damon and Pythias, or had dreamed of an Alcestis?"

He pondered silently for a few moments, and then sighed mournfully:

"The same wise man who said that a three-fold chord is not easily broken, also said, 'Love is as strong as Death.' Love is Genesis, Love is Alpha, Love, the true and only unity:— but Death—inevitable, inexorable—how can Love be as strong?"

I here imagined that I saw a faint gleam of hope. "Henry," said I, as earnestly as I could, "the true solution of your difficulty is, as you must see, in Love. I grant that three, the perfect number of the ancients, the sacred number of our own religion, is a mystery. But the line reads, 'a three-fold chord is not easily broken;' now, that implies that, although there may be difficulty in breaking what you call ternary influence, or the law of triads, in your family, still, it is entirely possible that it may be broken."

"Ha!" said he, quickly, "what is that?"

I repeated the sentence, and, granting that it was hard to break the law of triads, insisted that the text contemplated the possibility of breaking it.

Henry looked at me with blank amazement, and muttered, "Nellie! Nellie!—trithales, . . . . . trithales: but I must not hope against all common sense. Poor Miss Travis declared that she intended to come to America immediately, and said i should not die. She frightened

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me by saying that Death dare not enter where Love held court."

This at once convinced me that Henry was to be saved, if saved at all, by the power of this attachment. As Henry concluded his last soliloquy, (for he seemed to have forgotten that I was present,) the clock struck one, and Henry started.

"One, one!" he ejaculated—"that number runs strangely in all triads: the Trinity is only one God. Day, in spite of three parts, is only one, after all. Youth, manhood and old age make up only one life; imagination, reason and memory are only one mental apparatus; so, in all the soul- triads that I named every three possess in common love one faculty, which distinguishes them from other men, and at the same time classes the triad; and three parts of a whole belong, of course, to an unity; the things done thrice are, of necessity, in all their actions identically the same. Hence occurs the tendency of one to do away with three. Three were the Fates, but Love is only one!"

He said this with a degree of excitement that astonished me but little, and yet, which distressed me greatly, for I feared now that there was little hope of his ever being sane again. I begged him to go to bed.

"Oh, no," he replied, "I must look into this question, I must see how one interferes with three; I must see if Love is stronger than Death." Just then a servant entered with a despatch. I read it, and, to my horror, it was from our family physician, who begged me to return at once, as my only child was dangerously ill, and my wife, he said, half-crazy because I was absent. The train was to leave at six o'clock in the morning. I hasitly left my friend, who was too busy with his books to observe my departure. I entered the family sitting-room, and, having advised fully with them, (Miss Travis and Henry's parents,) I hurried to go into the library to bid Henry good-bye, promising to return as soon as possible. He seemed delighted with the prospect of being left alone at his studies, but begged me to come by Saturday's train, at all events.

I left him almost hopeless of any change. Returning to the anxious group in the sitting room, I begged Miss Travis not to show herself to Henry until the trying moment, and, having reasoned the matter with her, they all agreed that she was to keep out of Henry's way, so that at the critical time she might come in with all the influence which she possessed.

I left on the train, and on my arrival at home I found my child very ill. She was a little improved on Thursday, and very decidedly better on Friday; and on Saturday, she being entirely out of danger, my wife agreed for me to go to D——, to see after my poor friend.

I hurried to Mr. Morton's. There all was gloom and tears, and even Miss Travis was desponding. Father Ambrose had spent two mornings with Henry, but as yet had failed to convince him of his error; but the good old Jesuit had promised to come before seven o'clock. I sought Henry's chosen retreat, the library. He greeted me with great cordiality, and very calmly told me that his researches had shown that one sometimes prevailed over three, but that the threefold chord was not easily broken. I was amazed to see him so calm; but one word about Miss Travis plunged him into a dreamy silence, and I thought that, now and then, I saw a straggling tear. Meanwhile, I talked incessantly about Love being stronger than Death. He listened moodily, and occasionally left his chair to look a few minutes into some of his ponderous volumes.

Just at seven o'clock, Mr. Morton called me, from the door, and I excused myself to my dreaming friend. Father Ambrose stood in the passage. We soon arranged it. Miss Travis was to come in hurriedly, and one of us would propose marriage at once. We regarded this as our only chance. Father Ambrose, Mr. Morton and I walked into the Library. Henry very soon began to talk of death, and, after half an hour, suddenly Mrs. Morton came in, leading Miss Travis, who was habited in her traveling-suit. Henry received her with great feeling, and thanked her for coming so far to see him die.

"Who came with you?" he asked.

"Our old, deovted servant, Joh," she replied, "has been my factotum from my far-off home to America. Henry," said she, with great emphasis, "break this fatal charm! be a man!"

He shook his head sadly.

"Henry," said Mr. Morton, "if you must die, marry this lovely lady, and leave us one child, at least."

Henry turned quickly to Miss Travis, and asked her if she was willing. She immediately consented.

Father Ambrose took out a little volume from his pocket, and in ten minutes they were married, and never were the words, "until death you shall part," so solemnly spoken.

Just as the last words were spoken, the door was thrown violently open, and a servant rushed in.

"Who is that?" asked Henry, with a little surprise.

"Please, sir," asnwered the intruder, "master, your uncle Henry begs some of you to come over there immediately, because young master William, the second boy, you know, sir, has just been brought home dead—his horse ran away with him, and dashed out his brains against a tree."

"Second son! second son!" cried Henry, in a loud tone, "that is against all analogy."

"My brother, your uncle," said Mr. Morton, "is older than I am, he is the first son of our family, and William is the first child that he has lost, and William is the second son; the rule has failed; the triads are gone!"

"Thanks be to God!" exclaimed Father Ambrose. Nellie threw her arms around Henry's neck, and he drew her close to his bosom, saying, "Thank God, Nellie, my wife, the ternary influence is over, the chord, so hard to break, is broken; Love is stronger than Death, my wife, my wife!"

THE SICILIAN VESPERS.—It was the Tuesday after Easter, in the year 182, a day devoted to the festival of the Holy Spirit. The inhabitants of Palermo repaired in crowds, on that fine summer's evening, to a village church dedicated to the object of the day's reverence. French soldiers, more police than soldiers at the time, came to the number of two hundred to the festa; with their usual insolence they began to hustle the men and insult the women, under the pretence of seeking for concealed arms. A French soldier, named Drouet, behaving in this manner to a young Sicilian wife, was struck by her husband's stiletto. The cause and the result of the quarrel soon spread through the crowd.— "Death to the French!" was the universal exclamation, no sooner uttered than executed. All the French were killed. The rumor, the passion, and the cry were communicated to Palermo, and found a population but too ready to echo and embrace it. The French in Palermo were attacked— soldiers, and monks, and civilians. Sicilians reminded each other of the massacre of Agosta, where the French had put all the inhabitants to the sword, and the terrible precedent was eagerly followed. Not only in Palermo, but throughout the island, the sing became general, and with the same immediate result except at Messina, which the French for some time defended. According to Villani, four thousand French perished in the massacre of the Sicilian Vespers.—E. E. Crowe.

GREAK LAKERS.—The London News thus begins a biographic sketch of Lord Lyndhurst: It is a fact to be remarked that all our greatest lawyers are long lived. On examination it will, however, be found that there is nothing extraordinary to the matter. In order to enable a man to go through the amount of work which can alone constitue a successful barrister, you must presume a physical constitution of iron, a ability of adapting his habits to the requirements of his cag, and organization in which the nervous system is not too predominant. The demands on one who undertakes to th the Woolsack or the Bench are perfectly well understood and have been reduced to pithy phrases, such as Lord E's, that "a barrister must live like a hermit, and work like a horse;" or the cynical aphorism, that to be a great lawyer and a good judge, you must have a bad heart and a good digon. There are a few instances in which successful advocates at the English Bar have for a period triumphed by their pure force of energy and will over difficulties of bodily organization; but it has been almost invariably found in these cases that they one day unexpectedly broke down and never recovered.

MUSICAL.—Astley, the proprietor of the celebrated London Amphitheater always kept a sharp eye upon his instrumental performers. One evening he entered the orchestra in a rage, and inquired of the leader why the trumpets did not play.

"This is a pizzacato passage, sir," replied the man of the bow.

"A pizza what?" cried Astley

"A pizzacato."

"Well, well, we can't afford to let them be idle--let the trumpets pizzacato."

DIFFICULT TO COMPLY WITH.—A contemporary contains the follwing: "hunted, at this printing office, a devil of good moral character."


The gold-crusted gates of the purple-hung West Have oped to receive the Day-God to rest; While the handmaidens of Thetis, who blushingly wait To welcome the monarch with songs at the gate, All robed in soft silken cymars of roseate hue, Are preparing to scatter the diamond-like dew.

'Tis a calm Sabbath eve, and a breeze softly blows, Perfumed with the breath of a newly-born rose, And the envoy of night, in her mantle of grey, Comes on, while a bird chaunts a dirge o'er the day.

From their homes in the heavens, the stars, as they rise, Look down to the earth with their bright loving eyes, And bright loving eyes look up from the earth, And woo the sweet stars till they twinkle with mirth.

The Queen of the night-time--the silver-crowned Queen— Sends her hearlding raylets to lighten the scene, And the spectre-like forms of the Oak-tree and Pine Glide silently forth, and their weird arms entwine.

There's a fairy-like music which comes through the trees, And the murmur of waters is borne on the breeze, And sings to my soul the sweet anthems of streams, Like the mystical music heard only in dreams:— And to mortals a soul-filling draught is once given Of Love and of Beauty,—a foretaste of Heaven.

And now all regardless, forgetful, of earth— Of its pleasures or woes, of its sorrows or mirth, Of its triumphs of Science, its glories of Art, A prayer would well up from the depths of my heart:— I'd pray the great Father of Goodness and Truth To pardon the wild, wayward errors of youth, To bring back the Hope of the blest days of yore, And give me the Faith of my boyhood once more. April 20th 1859.



Apple-dumplings are too familiar objects to render a description of their particular application necessary to any who may honour this paper with their perusal. I shall, therefore, not detain the reader with any discussion that can be avoided without obscuring the farther investigations and deductions.

The fact of my having selected for these observations a subject of such apparent insignificance, no true lover of science will deem to merit ridicule. Science never becomes so exalted, as when she disregards all conventional pre- conceptions, and aims her dissecting-knife at subjects which the unlettered boor regards as unworthy of enquiry. It is only in such cases that she appears in the true light of science.— Where she merely touches upon subjects too elevated for ordinary investigation, she exhibits herself only as a more perfect KNOWLEDGE, a more extended information; but when her magic wand calls forth new thoughts, new ideas, new conceptions, in relation to matters of apparent unimportance, it is then, and then only, that we bow in conscious humility before the mighty arm of philosophic truth.

Agassiz has done so much of late which tends to instruct us concerning the gradually developing IDEA of creation, that we must view with welcoming approbation every new step taken in a similar direction. In the instance to which our immediate enquiries refer, we shall discover a most striking example of the fact maintained by Hugh Miller, in his "Testimony of the Rocks," that the intuitive inventions of man are but the unconscious application of natural facts and laws. Miller has shewn the similarity of a calico pattern to that of a coral of the old red sandstone; we would now go farther, and trace out the great natural law of embryological development in one of the simplest and best-known productions of the culinary art.

Although I do not wish to detain the anxious reader with an enumeration of the best methods for the preparation of apple-dumplings, nor to enlarge upon their tenacity, durability, and indigestible characters, it will be necessary to introduce some remarks in regard to their morphology and composition.

The idealized apple-dumpling may be regarded as a perfect sphere; but, owing to the laws of specific gravity and the compressability of aqueous vapours, the typical form is never discerned in its perfect state. Such, at least, is the conclusion at which I have arrived, in consequence of a vast number of autopical observations of apple-dumplings, pre-

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pared by different persons, of distinct races, in various countries, on either hemisphere. I therefore consider it safe to say, that on our planet apple-dumplings in no instance attain that degree of ideal perfection which our imaginations are enabled to bestow upon them.

Fig. I. [sketch of apple-dumpling]

The most perfect form which we are permitted to observe is that represetned in figure 1. Ordinarily, a variety of causes have effected a corresponding diversity in superficial conformation; but to these we shall again have occasion to refer. To employ a term much in vogue, of late, among our Northern neighbors, although equally misapplied in this instance as in any other, figure 1 exhibits the representative appledumpling. Occurrences of this description are in reality too rare to serve as real representatives of apple-dumplings in the aggregate; but yet, we are obliged to view them as the normal type of the actual apple-dumpling; disregarding, therefore, altogether the ideal conception of the apple-dumpling--the apple-dumpling in the abstract--to which reference has already been made. It is only after having thoroughly acquainted ourselves with this perfect form, that we shall be empowered to study the inequalities and morphological exceptions in the superficial construction of these bodies, and to diagnose the cases of such imperfections with satisfactory assurance of correctness.

Although figure 1 illustrates a body of an exceedingly regular construction, we are at once permitted to discern a manifest deviation from some leading form. We distinguise a tendency towards an inattainable ideal shape; and, therefore, at the same time, an inability to develop this in its ulterior perfection. That this unaccomplished form would, as I have already indicated, be truly spherical, is very clearly exhibited in the figure. Indeed, the upper portion of the apple-dumpling, there represented, shews the arc of a true circle. Lower down, at the sides of the body, we observe this large arc to become connected with the arcs of smaller circles, which themselves again are connected below by an horizontal base-line. The entire body is, therefore, a sphere, compressed beneath, and consequently distended laterally.-- A great number of echinoderms present a very similar external appearance and--although it would be very hasty, at this early period of our observations, to propose to establish any connecttion between these natural and artificial bodies-- it may not be improper to throw out the hint, that it is really highly probably that the same morphological coneption, which is in Nature's hands originated the echinus, the galerites, the ananchytes, the spartangus, or the holectypus, in the hands of Man gave birth to apple-dumplings.

It is in the same manner that we discover a connection between the forms of various star-shaped cakes and those of the asteria, the cidaris or the snow-flake; between the clypeaster or scutella and buckwheat-cakes or macaroons; between the holothuria and dough-nuts. Yet, scarcely with the exception of the last one, even, is the sphere the true prototype of all these echinodermal parallels of the culinary productions referred to, and that sphere is most completely developed in the apple-dumpling; so that we are fully supported by this circumstance; when we insist upon the preeminent importance of apple-dumplings as the great archetypical representation of all cakes and pastry. To this we shall return anon.

The netherwards-compressed sphere, so beautifully illustrated by the apple-dumpling, is a familiar form in nature, and is seen with peculiar distinctness in dew-drops on leaves. No doubt, too, it was the shape assumed by Smithson's famous tear-drop.* Every single separated spheroid of mercury possesses this shape. The oblate sphere itself, on which we dwell, with its solid crust and incandescent kernel, in all that refers to form is but a gigantic apple-dumpling. But why prolong our comparisons? It will be more important to us now to prepare ourselves for this study of the exceptional appearances, and, for this purpose, it is necessary to acquaint ourselves with the internal structure and the composition of the apple-dumpling.

*For Mr. Smithson's analysis of one-half of a lady's tear-drop, see notice, Smithsonian Report VIII., p. 104.

Fig. 2. [labeled sketch of the inside of an apple-dumpling]

In figure 2 I have furnished a cross-section of a normal apple-dumpling, in which aa represents the peripherical coating of dough, and bbb the enclosed fragments o fapples. At c we may yet detect the indications of a former aperture, closely corresponding with the operculum of the echinoderms. It was through this opening that the sections of apples were introduced. Had the British Sovereign inspected that part of the dumpling with care, he might at once have discovered a solution to his puzzled enquiries as to the mode of introduction of the apples. For my own part, I have found less difficulty in solving the problem concerning the manner of their insertion, than that relating to the primary cause of their presence in such a place; for, certainly no more unsuitable spot could have been chosen. In consequence of the closing up of the aperture at c, by contraction, the doughy cuticle is locally thickened, the suture-like remnant of the former opening being often visible, even in the adult dumpling.

Externally, the coating aa presents a very smooth surface, entirely devoid of the corragated and mammillated appearance of the shells of some of the echinoderms alluded to.-- On the innier side, it is different. There, indeed, such mammillated surface generally exists, sometimes even becoming partly botroydal, a fact more especially observable in those cases where the moist atmosphere of the interior has acted as a solvent upon the inner coating, and produced the imperfect stalactitic excrescence observable at d.

At firsts sight, it might appear as if the interior of the dumpling must be entirely filled with the fragmentary remains of apples, and it might be supposed that a deficiency in their bulk would case the dumpling to collapse. No hypothesis can be so imperfect! no conclusion so fallacious! And great would be the disappointment arising from so injurious a misconception, when the dissected dumpling rerealvs a disproportionately small allowance of apples for the seeming promise of the external dimensions of the body.-- Deceived by appearances, the knife is brought to bear upon the apple-dumpling, with the expectation of resistance from the enveloped apples. But, instead of this, the mass gives way, an indenture is made, and the actual incision takes place much later, while a dense volume of aqueous vapour escapes, frequently with sufficient proce to produce a faint sound. Then, but not till then, does the apple-dumpling really collapse.

The escaping steam affords us a ready explanation of the cause of the distended character of these dumplings.-- In its embryonic state, the apple-dumpling is flat, and resembles the clypeaster, or scutella; but, when exposed to an elevated temperature, during its next stage of development, a large portion of the water, held by the apples, is disengaged. The impervious character of the cuticle prevents its escape, and its gradual explansion manifests itself in the external shape of the apple-dumpling. The high temperature of the interior causes the force of several atmospheres to be exerted upon the doughy crust, so that the least incision superinduces a sudden escape of vapour, which effects a correspondingly rapid diminution in the size of the entire body.

There are instances, of by no means rare occurrence, in which a local attenuation of the enveloping crust gives rise to a little elevation, at which point the increased expansion of the vapour frequently occasions a fissure, such as we perceive at eee in figure 3. The steam, thus finding a vent, the dumpling often collapses spontaneously.

Fig. 3 [labeled sketch of collapsed apple-dumpling]

At dd, in figure 3, we observe a thickening of the cuticle, in consequence of which the expansion is less regular, and a superficial flattening, or even depression, occurs, so that we discover various causes of irregularity in the development of these bodies. Malformations are thus very common, and figuer 3 represents a deviation from the normal type, which is to be seen in almost every dish of dumplings.

We have, in the previous portions of this monograph, confined ourselves chiefly to the morphological characteristics of apple-dumplings; but--important as are the conclusions deducible from their embryonic form--the composition must be duly regarded, if we desire to avail ourselves of the determined characteristics of apple-dumplings in establishing a correct classification of pastry. The day is passed, when a mere knowledge of the distinguishing features of the various kinds of such preparations could satisfy our philosophical cravings. It is now our duty to attempt to link together, in one grand but definite system, the multiform and seemingly incongruous productions of the pastry-cook.

No doubt can any longer exist as to the fact that the apple-dumpling is the grand archetype of pastry, as regards form. As relates to composition, the conclusion is the same. Apple-dumplings consist, as has been stated, of portions of apples and of a peripherical cuticle of dough, and the following table will shew the manner in which this archetype has been differentiated into the separate varieties of pastry, &c.:

APPLE-DUMPLINGS ---------------------------------------------------- A B Preponderance of dough, and Diminution of dough, and preomission of fruit, produces:-- ponderance of fruit, produces:-- --------------------------------------------- ----------------------------------------------- I. II. I. II. plain dumplings, dough-nuts apple-fritters apple-pies or noodles, used ---------------------------------------------- (passing by in soup These are subsequently very impercebtible ---------------------- gradually differentiated into gradations inallied to these various cakes. to other pies are, and tarts.) 1--macaroni, 2--vermecelli, 3--various puddings.

We perceive, in this tabular view, that apple-dumplings are the embryonic as well as connecting type of all these varied productions. If we take the two extremes, apple-pies and plain dumplings, or noodles, the apple-dumpling appears as a connecting link. The noodle seems to be the lowest form, the apple-dumpling the next, and the pie the highest; but such is not in reality the case. It has been recently established, as a great law of nature, that the lowest form is that which combines the elementary ideas, subsequently differentiated into distinct forms, and that the fact of its embracing the incipient idea of a higher form, does not elevate it above the separate development of its lower conception.-- The earlier organic creations in geologic history combined those typical features, which have now become separated into different classes. Yet would it be incorrect to place them higher on the scale than the lowest recent creation, which finds its prototype in the composite being of an earlier peroid. So it is here, likewise. The thought, the imperfect conception, which primarily vented itself in the production of an apple-dumpling, has now become separated into the several ideas which may be distinctively studied in the noodle, the dough-nut, the apple-fritter, and the apple-pie. The apple-dumpling itself stands as the great connecting type between the two grand divisions, of which those are the members. An increased development of the two elementary types, first conceived in the apple-dumpling, originated the different classes; and the noodle or dough-nut is as much an apple-dumpling, without apples, as the applepie is an apple-dumpling in which the crust has decreased in bulk. Nevertheless, the apple-dumpling is really lower on the scale of development than either of these, because it prophetically embraces the unperfected types of them all.

What more beautiful instance could we have of the subjection of the creative mind of Man to the governing regulations of Nature, than that which is manifested by the apple-dumpling? Groping his way amid darkness, the gleaming light of a new conecption flashes across his mind, and gives birth to his invention; and, when another, and again another, is added to his list, and he turns back in boastful pride at his self-originated ideas, his retracing steps shew him the connecting links, the previously unnoticed Ariadnethread, by which he was unconsciously guided. His boldest flights of fancy, his loftiest imaginings, as well as his unpremediated conceptions, are ruled by laws which are most clearly, most concisely, most perfectly expressed in nature; and, no matter how complete the apple-pie order in which he would place his several inventions, he must, at best, confess himself a noodle. ---------------------------------------------------- Pleasure is the greatest foe that happiness has.

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The Courant; A Southern Literary Journal The Courant. Columbia, S.C., Thursday, May 5, 1859. To Our Readers. With this number we commence the publication of the Courant, and inasmuch as we have already exlpained the objects of our Journal, we deem it scarcely necessary to recapitulate, here, as most of those who will see this paragraph will have received already our Prospectus. Still it may be well to define our position for the benefit of those who will naturally inquire in relation to some of these matters. First, we design to make the Courant a medium of publication for Southern mind, and we hope that our thinkers will avail themselves of the opportunity presented to them. The literary independence of the South is one thing which we desire to see achieved, and which sooner or later must be accomplished, as a means of defence against the incendiary publications of the anti-slavery section of our country. The monthlies, the quarterlies, the daily papers are all more or less anti-Souther in feeling ; would that our people could be induced to stike off their names from the books of the "North American Reveiw", and the "Atlantic Monthly," and a host of Boston and New York dailies, to make room for the "Southern Literary Messenger," "Russell's Magazine," and staunch SOuthern journals of Richmond, Charleston, Columbia, Savannah, Mobile or New Orleans. Read the finest poem of an "Atlantic" contributor ; you will hear Longfellow, Whittier and Lowell singin the maudlin sentimentalities of Abolition; prostituting their talets, as was once well said, "to become negro-minstrels." Read their best essays - here and there creeps in a hit at our peculiar institution ; the sermons overflow with the fiercest denunciations of the South, and with all the isms of the day they find Abolitionism the best stock-in-trade ; yet Beecher, and Theodore Parker have many readers and admirers amongst us! If such a course be not abondoned, we shall soon see the worst consequences accruing therefrom. But, we take it, no reflecting man needs our homilies on this subject, and with this simple allusion to the matter, we leave it to our readers' own good sense and patriotism. Be it understood, however, that we do not indiscriminately include the whole North ; there are many pure-minded men there, and some clean sheets, published even in Boston. Against these we can have nothing to say, but in relation to patronising the abolition journals we mean all the we have said. Secondly, we intend to do no "puffing" - a Northern book shall receive its deserts, whether for good or for evil ; and Southern publications shall be treated with the same scrupulous justice. We shall not "puff" in order to secure the good-will of either author or publisher, inasmuch as our duty is to inform our readers of the facts. Then, again, we shall, in all particulars, avoid hero-worship ; we shall a boat, a boat. If Longfellow writes any more Hiawathas, we shall not feel under any obligations to call them epics, and hold them up for admiration becuase he wrote them ; on the contrary, it will be our duty to expose all kinds of humbugs in literature, and particularly when the charlatan has the shadowof a great name under which to hide his tricks. If Longfellow should give us some more such lyrics as "The Day is Done," the "Skelton in Armor," the "Hymn to the Night," &c., we shall praise them as warmly and sincerely as if they were the productions of some unknown genius whose merits we desire the world to acknowledge. we hope that with these explanations our position will be perfectly comprehended. One word to those persons amongst us who CAN write. We desire to make our journal, in an especial manner, the organ of that large class in our midst, who, in addition to a fondness for reading and study, have the ability and inclination to express their own thoughts on the topics upon which they have read. Indifference, procrastination and reserve unluckily cheat the world of many a fine though, many a noble sentiment. We could mention, in our own State, fifty young people, from the age of fifteen to thirty, who are perfectly competent to the discussion of any question which they might select ; persons who have astonished us in conversation by the amoutn of their knowledge, and the oiginality and rigor of their thoughs, and yet, whose powers were unknown outside of a small circle of personal friends. Some of these have promised to contribute to the Courant ; others have agreed to consider the matter, and a few have been persuaded to give us short articles. To this timid yet well-qualified class we offer our journal as the medium for publishing their productions, and we trust that this appeal will produce the desired effect. To those of our writers who have contributed, or have promised so to do, we return our heartiest thanks. To the Press of South Carolina we cannot find words to express our gratitude for their many kind and encouraging notices. With the exception of one or two papers, (which have not done us the favor of a notice of any sort,) we must thank the press of our State for the many expressions of opinion as to us personally, and the enterprise in which we have engaged. To the other journals throughout the South which have spoken of our undertaking we tender our most cordial thanks, and we hope, in the future, to be able some day to show that we properly appreciate their kindness. At a recent sale of manuscripts in Paris, there was in the catalogue, a MS memoir presented by a Breton Admiral to King Louis XVI, containing a plan of operations for a descent upon the coasts of England. Before the sale came off the memoier was bought in on the Emperor's account. THE CALHOUN MONUMENT. We have received a circular from the "Ladies' Calhoun Monument Association" of Charleston, announcing a Floral Fair in aid of the funds of their Association. This is a most noble enterprise, and one in which every Carolinian is directly interested. The ladies of Charleston have already done much in this patriotic work, and we hope that all parts of the State will sustain them in their l-a bors in this behalf, by sending contributions of handiwork or donations of money. The proposed Fair is to be held on the 10th of May. What will the daughters of Columbia do in aiding this highly creditable and patriotic undertaking? Our readers need not to be instructed as to the value of national monuments, and least of all, to be told of this duty to him who held nothing so dear as South Caronlina ; to whom he was, indeed, decus et tutamen. FLORAL FAIR, IN AID OF THE FUNDS OF THE LADIES' CALHOUN MONUMENT ASSOCIATION, At the Hall of the South Carolina Institute, in Charleston, Commencing May 10th, 1859. The Ladies of the Calhoun Monument Association, will open a Floral Fair at the Institute Hall, in Charleston, on the evening of the 10th May. Believing that the people of the City and State aprove and will sustain their undertaking, they invite contributions of Handiwork, Flowers, Refreshments, &c., either useful or ornamental. They hope to receive the co-operation of all in this patriotic work of rearing a suitable memorial to Carolina's greatest son. Donations may be forwarded to either of the undersigned. Mrs. George Robertson, President, No. 1, Smith-st. Mrs. M. A. Snowden, Treasurer, No. 9, Church-st. LECTURES - A SUGGESTION. We see in the Cheraw papers accounts of the Lecture of Henry Timrod, our young Carolina Petrarch who has been holding forth on "The Southern Author." We have no doubt, from what they say concerning this lecture, that it was a most creditable performance. Why will Columbia allow Cheraw to out-do her in the matter of lectures? The Athenaeum directory had a few excellent essays delivered before our citizens last year, and we began to hope that a monthly or weekly lecture was to be one of the "institutions" of our City. Let us hear from you, gentlemen of the Board of Directors; and let not Cheraw excel us in this good work. We should like to see the rostrum of the Athenaeum occupied by such men as Judge Meek, Hon. H. W. Hilliard, Mr. Grayson, Dr. Dickson, Dr. Furman, Dr. Cross, Rev. Mr. Hoyt, Mr. Brantly, Bishop Lynch; not omitting our younger writers, John R. Thompson, Cooke, Hayne, Lieber, Davidson, Timrod, &c. AN EXCELLENT OPPORTUNITY TO PROCURE RARE BOOKS. Bangs, Merwing & Co. of New York, will sell, on the 23d of May, he library of the late R. W. Griswold. This is a rare collection of scarce and valuable books, especially on topics relating to American literature, a field in which Mr. Griswold labored much, and industriously collected many things which it is now impossible to obtain by any of the ordinary channels. (This we learn from that independent sheet, the Saturday Press.) Persons who desire to complete their collections in any department of American thought and study, will do well to avail themselves of this chance. The early literary history of our country has been miserably neglected hitherto, and the compilers of our "Cycolpaedia of American Literature," "Poets and Poetry of America," &c., have found the greatest difficulty in obtaining the information, (most needful for such works,) which relateds to the earlier periods. Yet, much praise belongs to Dr. Griswold and the Duyckincks, and above all, to Mr. Allibone, whose "Dictionary or English and American Authors" cannot be too much commended; and of which the first volume has recently been published in Philadelphia. OUR ADVERTISERS. We beg leave to call the attention of our readers to several advertisements in the present number of our paper, inasmuch as it will be much to their advantage to follow the current of advertisers, since men who advertise usually prosper. Messrs. Wearn & Hix, (over Fisher & Agnew's store,) invite the public to call and see the new triumph of sun-painting, the Ivorytype. It is truly a most wonderful and beautiful invention; combining all the accuracy of the photograph with the softness of painting in water colors. These gentlemen have decided artistic talents, which, with their industrious habits, must secure success. By all means visit their studio; is it well worth the trouble. Our readers are particularly referred to the advertisement of Messrs. B. L. Bryan & Co.; their stock is always large and always well selected : flash literature finds no place on their shelves. Besides, they import foreign books in the shortest possible time, and as to stationery of all sorts, they keep one of the best assortments to be found in the South. Of our Charleston advertisement, observe those of Messrs. Courtenay, Patterson, & co., and Jos. Walker, all of whom are too well known to need a long or circumstantial notice. Like Messrs. R. L. Bryan & Co., all that is needed is simply a reference to their advertisements. The Banking-House of Messrs. Shingler & Brothers offers many inducements to those who may have dealing in their line;- and who has not? This is comparatively a young house, but it is rapidly acquiring amost enviable name. INTRODUCTORY LECTURES. We have received the Introductory lecture delivered by Drs. Gaston & Talley to their preparatory class. These lecturesare both admirably written, and show that the two lecturers possess not only the requisite knowledge, but what is equally as needful, the ars docendi. Columbia is singularly favoured with scientific physicians, both young and old, and in the lectures before us we see evidences of a power which shall maintain the established reputation of our medical fraterniiy. Success, then, to the Preparatory School. Dr. LABORDE - We are much pleased to be able to inform our readers that Lr. La Borde's History of the S. C. College, is already in the hands of the printer. It is to be a complete work, containing Catalogues, names of Professors, Trustees, and other officers, who are or have been connected with our State Institution. This volume will be indispensable to all alumni of the College, and to their relatives and freinds; and will contain much information to interest the general reader. Besides, it will be, doubtless, written in the clear and elegant style for which Dr. LaBorde is distinguished. "J. W. D.," writing to the Winnsboro' Register, says that he knows of three volumes of poetry, by as many young Southerm poets, to be issued before long. "'Tis past a doubt, All Bedlam or Parnassus is let out." We hope that J. W. D. himself will not keep back the volume which he ought to have given to the world ere this. For the Courant. THE JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN GEOGRAPHCIAL AND STATISTICAL SOCIETY Has just commenced its publications in New York. The first two numbers are received, and their contents and appearance promise a valuable addition to the current literature of the day. A medium for the conveyance of sound knowledge on all subjects connected with GEOGRAPHY, in the widest acceptation of the term, has been much needed in our country. The "Mittheilungen," from Perthes' geographical institute at Gotha, have long supplied this want in Europe, bu we have had nothing of the kind; yet nowhere could such a publication be more desired. The gathering knowledge in the geography of the vast countries of the Occident, should not be lost by its diffusion through the pages of different journals. There ought to be one single publication to which to refer, and we only trust that the board of editors will exercise such proprer control over the communications, as to insure that reliance upon the correctness of its contents, which along can effect lasting beneftis. The term geography is so little understood, in the comprehensive designation for which we employ it, that an explanation may be needed. We do not here speak of ordinary school-book-geography, rude descriptions of boundary lines, or enumerations of towns and rivers; but of a description of the earth, its physical geography in all its branches - geology, botany, zoology, meteorolgy, ethnology - in short, everything that may tend to throw increased light upon our globe and its inhabitants. Industry, statistics, all are to be treated. The filed is one of no mean dimensions, and embraces that which concerns the historian, the statesman, the naturalist, the agriculturist - indeed, it would be difficult to conceive of any intellectual pursuit, which is not, in some way, interested in geography. In the first number of the journal we find some farther communications on the height of the North Carolina mountains, about which so much has been sad of late. These are contributed by the Rev. Dr. Haks, and refer to the information collected by Mr. Buckley. We were somewhat disappointed that the occasion was not embraced to introduce some hints concerning new geographicla nomenclature. The opportunity was a most favourable one to advance such suggestions. Here we see that proudest peak east of the Rocky Mountains named, (by himself,) after an obscure botanical collector. We once heard that a person called another a liar, although he knew him as a man of truth, merely, as he expressed himself, "to see i it would stick." Perhaps Mr. Buckley intended to try a similar experiment in this instance, and most certainly we trust it will not stick. Fortunately, there is too little harmony in the sound of the name to render this at all likely. 'Tis said, "a rose with any other name would smell as sweet;" but, while we are at it, we are surely acting as wisely if we apply a graceful designation. Here, then, we have a proposition to make, and we trust that Mr. Colton, and others, will indicate that they admits its propriety, by inserting the euphonious word "UNAKA" on their future maps, instead of "Buckley." "Unaka" was the name given by the Cherokee to what are now termed the "Smoky Mountains." The word means "white," and why not, then - as the term has been replaced in its first signification - employ it for the loftiest summit of the range, the longest clad with snow! By all means, then, let us henceforth call this Mt. BUckley, of which so much capital has been made, Mount Unaka, and show our good taste by preserving another of the forgotten Indian names. It would be out of place to extend this notice by enlarging upon the other contents of the numbers before us. Suffice it to say, that they appear all to be of a sound, substantial character, and on matters on which information is much needed. May the Journal not degenerate from the promise of its first issues, is our earnest wish. L.

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