Leland Stanford Papers

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PROSPECTUS of the PALAEONTOLOGICAL, GEOLOGICAL AND MINERALOGICAL COLLECTIONS of

Dr. v. KLIPSTEIN, PROFESSOR OF GEOLOGY AT THE UNIVERSITY OF GIESSEN GRANDUCHY OF HESSEN

PALAEONTOLOGICAL PART.

It is divided in geografic groups with peculiar consideration of the geognostic horizons and represents the 5 parts of the globe. The cultivated parts naturally allow easier to acquire scientific materials and are therefore with the nearer istuated countries richer collected. Capitally represented are the interesting and most important localities of the Austrian and Italian Alps. I have collected there during 20 years partly for myself alone, partly together with my friends and colleague professor ZITTEL of Munich, with EDMOND VON MOISISOVICS and FELIX KARRER of Vienna, who were charged from their governments to collect the grand museums of Munich and Vienna.

Nearly all interesting and instructive localities for petrafacts have been exploited with many difficulties. Particularly amply I have collected in the formations and localities of St. Cassian, Esino, Marmolata (a new locality of Esino piles), Hallstadt, Gosau and Hierlatz &c.

In the alpine geological horizons exist very great differences as regards richness of the petrafacts and the opulence of different species in the different piles. Compare only the rich piles and lays of petrefacts of St. Cassian to the poor ones of the chief dolomite or the wealth of the Gosau and Hallstadt formations with the rareness of petrefacts in the Dachsteinlimestone. Corresponding with these differences of production you will find the number of exemplars in the following catalogue. The kinds and species of the different geografical groups of the whole collection with few exceptions caused by want of some necessary publications are fixed after the newest state of science with named authors.

As the collection is put on geografically it requires to divide it in chief groups and subdivisions representing the different localities of the geological horizons. We begin with

[columns]

I. CHIEF GROUP. AUSTRIAN AND ITALIAN ALPS.

A) SUBDIVISION OF THE SOUTHERN CHAIN OF ALPS.

................................................................................ Number of exemplars

1) The piles of St. Cassian represented by 6 different localities (Alp Stuores, Prelongei, Valparola, nearest circuits of St. Cassian, Alp Pescol and Seeland) .............................................................................. 7000

2) Fauna of the Raiblerpiles:

a) Holygosts' church near St. Leonhard .......................................... 140

b) Schlern .................................................................................... 110

c) Raibl ........................................................................................ 120

3) Hierlatzpiles (lower Lias) of Fanes ............................................. 150

4) Klauspiles (Malm) of the castel Terino (near the Cima d'Asta) ........ 20

5) Piles of Wengen (Wengen and Corvara) ....................................... 60

6) Piles of Seiss and Campil (Campitello, Logoschell and Grones) ...... 60

[end column one]

[column two]

................................................................................ Number of exemplars

7) Chief dolomite of Southtirol different localities particularly from the group of the Tofana ................................................................................. 30

8) Upper Muschelkalk:

a) Wengen .................................................................................... 120

b) Recoaro ...................................................................................... 40

9) Formations of Tithon of the Fanes, of Trento, Roveredo etc. ......... 160

10) Esinoformation of Esino near Varenna on the lake of Como ........ 150

11) Esino (?) piles of the Marmolata ................................................. 300

12) Kössenpiles (Rhaetish) of the Val Lorina ........................................ 6

13) Neocom of the Gerdenazza, of the Zwischenkofel and of the Fanis 120

14) Subalpineformations of Eocen (Nummuliten) and Oligocen of the country near Vicenza and Verona ................................................................ 500

15) Subalpinechalkformation (craie, Scaglia and Biancone) ................ 30

........................................................................................ Summa 9116

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Eighty or hundred exemplars of these are vertebra (fishes and sauriers), all the others belong to the groups of Coelenterata, Echinodermata, Mollusca, except few Annelids. Some not yet fixed forms will probably be Arthropods. To No 14 still belong 40 - 50 exemplars of fossil plants and 10 exemplars of Crustacees.

B) SUBDIVISION OF THE NORTHERN CHAIN OF ALPS.

....................................................................................... Number of ex.

1) Piles of Hallstadt from the Deltchen, Sandling, Raschberg, near Aussee, from Steïnberg- and Someraukogel near Hallstadt and from the Rossmoos near Goysern ............................................................................. 900

2) Piles of Kössen from Kössen and Reit ...................................... 110

3) Piles of Adneth from the Kammerkahr and its environs ............ 150

4) The same piles from the circuits of the lake of Wolfgang ........... 120

5) Middle Lias from the Schafberg .............................................. 160

6) Piles of Hierlatz from the Hierlatz near Hallstadt ..................... 520

7) Superior Jura from Vils ............................................................ 60

8) Piles of Zlambach .................................................................... 30

9) Fauna of the Gosau (Turonien and Senonien of the chalkformation):

a) Gosau basin and Russbach .................................................... 2220

b) Environs of the lake of Wolfgang .............................................. 50

c) Brandenberg .......................................................................... 150

d) Alp Cadoi beneath the yoke of the Sonnenwend ....................... 170

e) Untersberg near Salzburg ......................................................... 50

10) Eocen (Nummulites) formations of the Kressenberg near Traunstein 400

11) The same from Häring .......................................................... 120

12) Mediterrane (afer Moisisovics) from Hall ................................. 15

Summa .................................................................................... 5200

To No. 10 belong 15-20 exemplars of vertebra to No 11 40-50 ex. of the fossil flora of Häring. The greatest part of this division consists of Mollusks, Echinodermata pp. - It is still to remark that amongst the palaeontological divisions of the eastern Alps are many suits of quite new not yet scientifically fixed or described forms, which will be of a peculiar interest.

II. CHIEF GROUP.

THE AUSTRIAN PROVINCES IN THE NORTH FROM THE ALPS.

A) BOHEMIA (subdivision)

........................................................................................ Number of ex.

1) Bohemian Silur and Devon:

a) Crustacies ............................................................................. 220

b) Graphtolites ........................................................................... 15

c) Brachiopodes, Cephalopods, Gasteropods, Conifers, Crinoïds, Koralls pp. ................................................................................................. 180

2) Bohemian chalk .................................................................... 120

[end column one]

[column two]

B) COUNTRIES OF THE SUPERIOR DANUBE (subdivision)

........................................................................................ Number of ex.

1) Tertiary basin of Vienna .......................................................... 880

C) COUNTRIES OF THE DANUBE INFERIOR (subdivision)

1) Tithon of the Karpaths ............................................................ 320

2) Tertiary fauna of Transylvania .................................................. 80

III. CHIEF GROUP.

GERMANY.

A) SOUTH OF GERMANY (subdivision).

....................................................................................... Number of ex.

1) Trias of south Germany ............................................................ 30

2) Jura of:

a) Suabish Jura .......................................................................... 940

b) Frankonian Jura (30 vertebra and 15 crustacees belongs to them) ................................................................................................. 580

3) Fauna of the tertiary from the middle Rhine:

a) Mollusces pp. ...................................................................... 3820

b) Vertebra ............................................................................. 1560

4) Sweet water formations from Steinheim and Oehningen with 20 vertebra 80

5) Pliocaen from Miesbach, Schliersee and Ortenburg ................. 40

6) Tertiary formations from Märing and Traunstein ..................... 20

7) Vertebra (fishes and sauriers) from the carboniferous sytem near Saarbrücken .............................................................................. 30

Summa .................................................................................. 7100

B) NORTH OF GERMANY (subdivision).

........................................................................................ Number of ex.

1) Devonish formation on the Rhine .......................................... 480

2) Devonish formation on the Harz ............................................. 50

3) Devon Limecoal and Silur in Silesie ....................................... 180

4) Trias in the North of Germany ................................................ 80

5) Jura in the northwestern Germany:

a) shells (Schaalenthiere) .......................................................... 600

b) Vertebra ............................................................................... 120

6) Jura in the northeastern Germany .......................................... 120

7) Chalk (Kreide) formation in the North of Germany .................. 830

8) Tertiary formations in the North of Germany:

a) Eocen from Bünde .................................................................. 30

b) Oligocen middle and lower from Sattdorf and Söllingen .......... 280

c) Miocen from Langenfeld ........................................................ 120

d) Miocen from the Habichtswald ................................................ 40

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.................................................................... Number of ex.

9) Foundlings of petrefacts of different formations found in the Diluvial plain

of North Germany ............................................ 50

10) Copperslate and Magnesian limestone ......... 20

........................................................ Summa 3000

Most of the localities of III chief group are nicely complete, the richest of them is the middlerhinish Fauna of the Tertiary, the fishes therin are so completely represented that they will not easely to be found so in any other collection, the classes of higher vetebra are not quite as rich neither the formations of Devon, Trias and Magnesian limestone.

IV. CHIEF DIVISION. FRANCE, BELGIAN AND HOLLAND.

A) NORTH OF FRANCE.

................................................................. Number of ex.

1) Transtive formations of the Bretagne............. 30

2) Jura of Calvados pp....................................... 220

3) Chalk of the North of France ......................... 90

4) Tertiary formations of the North of France:

a) Basin of Paris and of the Chanpagne .............. 710

b) Touraine ...................................................... 320

c) Ardennes, Loire inférieure, Laon, Sarthe pp... 130

d) Oise ............................................................. 140

.......................................................... Summa 1640

B) SOUTH OF FRANCE

1) Jua and Chalk ............................................... 300

2) Tertiary formations of the North of France:

a) Basin of Bordeaux and Dax ............................ 740

b) Roussillon .................................................... 310

c) Drome, haute Rive ........................................ 220

.......................................................... Summa 1570

C) BELGIAN AND HOLLAND.

1) Belgian carboniferous limstone ..................... 450

2) Chalk from Mastricht, Limburg pp ................. 540

3) Belgian Tertiary formations ........................... 470

...........................................................Summa 1460

From different districts of France I possess a large suit yet unpaked and for that reason not yet registered. It will be some thousand exemplars. The same case is with a smaller collection of Belgian and Holland, both will nicely complete the IV Chief division.

From Spain, Portugal, Danemark and the Turkey I possess no petrefacts. Some Chief countries of Europe, as England, Italy, Russia and Sweden are not richly represented, also not the four other parts of the globe. As they form notwithstanding chief

[end column one] [column two]

groups in a geographically divide collection, they follow as such, if also poorly represented.

V. CHIEF GROUP. ENGLAND.

.................................................................... Number of ex.

1) Limestone of Devon ....................................... 10

2) Jura ............................................................... 15

3) Tertiary (Barton) ............................................ 50

............................................................. Summa 75

VI. CHIEF GROUP. SWEDEN

Fauna of Silurformation of the isle of Gothland .... 250

VII. CHIEF GROUP. ITALY.

1) Tertiary formations (subappenine) .................... 50

2) Pliocen and Miocen of Sicily ............................ 360

.............................................................. Summa 410

VIII. CHIEF GROUP. RUSSIA.

1) Silurformation from the environs of Petersburg .. 40

2) Jura from the environs of Muscovy ..................... 220

................................................................. Summa 260

IX. CHIEF GROUP. ASIA.

1) Devonish fauna of Siberia .................................. 20

2) Trias and Lias of Thibeth .................................... 40

3) Tertiary formations of Japan ............................... 6

..................................................................Summa 66

X. CHIEF GROUP. AMERIKA.

Devon from Jova etc. .............................................. 50

XI. CHIEF GROUP. AUSTRALIA.

The fossil giant birds (Moa) from Newsealand in 5 genera

and 7 different species ........................................... 180

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ADDITION OF SOME FOSSIL FLORAS

.................................................................................. Number of ex.

1) Flora of the carboniferous system near Saarbrücken .............. 80

2) Flora of the carboniferous system in Bohemia ........................ 30

3) Middle Tertiary formation (lignit) from the Wetterau and from the Vogelsbirg (Upper hassia)........................................................................... 120

4) Eocenflora from Leoben (Austria) .......................................... 10

.................................................................................... Summa 240

In dividing geographically my palaeontological collection I had the intention to compare the faunas and floras of the divergent different countries in their geological and zoological particularities in the different formations. Possessing so many exemplars of the species of nearly all formations I could form from the doublets also a methotic - geological collection and a systematic collection always can be taken out if wished for to make instructive comparisons.

THE METHODIC - GEOLOGICAL COLLECTION.

Forming this collection I took care to represent the normal and abnormous formations of rocks not only in their position in the geognostic system, but also in their petrografic caracter. As far as possible I also tried this with the more distant not European countries. Europa naturally is more amply represented. The greatest part of the stones are freshly cut exemplars in the size of 12 □". Some also doubly the seize or if not possible to get them 12 □" large half as large.

I furnished the collection in the different stoneformations with the minerals that are found in them.

The whole collection is provided with etiquettes giving the name of stone and its locality, often the etiquette tells also the publications wherein the stones or minerals are spoken of. The collection will count more than 4000 exemplars and with regard how it is set in order, how caracteristically the choice of the pieces is, and that the ores and minerals to be found in the different stone formations are nicely represented and that also a fine collection of artefacts of the stones will make the whole collection a very rare one and particularly fit for instruction.

THE GEOGNOSTIC - MINERALOGICAL COLLECTION OF DIFFERENT LOCALITIES.

Particularly richly furnished from hassia and the adjacent environs of Wetzlar from which countries I once made an ample geological publication. Than there are nice local suits of Tirol and Carinthia, from the North of France, Newsealand and some districts of America (Brasilia and hollandish Guyana). The seize and freshness of cutting of the pieces is the same as in the geografical suits.

THE SYSTEMATIC - MINERALOGICAL COLLECTION.

Consists of nearly 3600 exemplars. A great part of it are of very large seize, capitalpieces, which will make quite an adornment to any collection. The new mineral substances made in the last time are not yet represented and the whole collection is not thoroughly complete, but put on an ample style, with a good choice of caracteristic minerals, all set in order after the R. BLUM's compendium of mineralogy.

GIESSEN, PRINTED BY W. KELLER.

[notation: 911?116?]

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San Francisco June 15th 85

Senator Leland Stanford

Sir,

In pursuance of your kind intimation I took occasion to call on you at the Railroad Office last week. Your great business prevented my seeing you; and my engagements also forbid repeated attempts to see you in person. I have therefore thought that it were perhaps best to put my thoughts in writing, with all possible brevity, leaving it to you to determine if further explanation and interview may be necessary or desirable.

You will pardon this freedom. Perhaps after all my suggestions have already occurred to you. I do not flatter myself that they are very extraordinary or far reaching; but you will realize better than I can.

Have seen all that you have said about your new Institute, the enabling Bill, and think I understand the very practical thing you desire to establish. My study of such matters has been, and my experience in educational institutions and purposes is

[large notation over text: 124]

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[illegible][is to enable me?] to offer the following cautions:

Your purpose, if I understand it aright, is to secure a practical and useful education to a large number of the children of those who are not well able to defray the cost for themselves. Many such Institutions have been founded in the past, in England and elsewhere, and almost all have in the end been [converted? perverted?] to other ends and uses. If you will refer to some of the proceedings of Lord Brougham, when he became Chancellor of England, you will find how insidiously these mutations were accomplished.

1st. The Board of Trustees are respectable and wealthy of course, and begin at once, and openly, to admit the children of their own Class, and no others, till it becomes a High School for the Wealthy. This must be foreseen and forbidden by the most stubborn rules and laws, defining who shall, and who shall not, and in what proportions, be beneficiaries.

2nd. The same end is affected in another

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form when this is made impossible. The style, surroundings incidental expenses are made such as to exclude the poor; and by a gradual process of elimination, secure the entire benefit to the children of the rich. This should be carefully guarded against, by careful and irremovable regulation.

3rd. The curriculum is continually elevated into the region of ornament and out of the sphere of usefulness, till those who have their fortunes to seek no longer find the Institute a stepping-stone to that end, and leave it to the sons and daughters of wealth. The Faculty, unless restrained by positive law has a strong tendency in this direction, because it tends to magnify them, and to confine their attentions to the children of fortune.

4th. Religion is a stumbling-block in the way of all educational foundations. It must be wholly secular, or sectarian. No! It should be neither. To be declared either, is to open in a state of warfare, in which contending elements will forever

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[intrigue for the wealthy?][illegible] other [eventually carry all?][illegible] recognition of God, wise, good, and smiling. His approval of all that is [grand?] and noble and useful, would perhaps disarm the sectarian, and [place?] the advocate of secularism at his case. This much of religion can be proven, is acceptable to all, and [illegible] fair to flourish to the end of time. It would be a [positivism?] which would hold both [wings?] at arms length.

5th. Your leading purpose appears to be to afford a practical and useful education to those who must work out their own fortunes by public or private usefulness. [A?] school for men and women who [never?] service to live and acquire. To this end many of the studies of our colleges and universities are wholly superfluous. They are to make [S..illegible], Philosophers, Poets, Authors, Gentlemen, Diplomats, and Linguists, [illegible] of fame. No one knows better than you that these studies are not necessary to an

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eminently practical and useful life.

Your students should even avoid these elevated flights of fancy, and confine themselves,

"to things averred and known,

And daily, hourly seen."

To be qualified to be a County Surveyor, Clerk, Bookkeeper, Treasurer, Banker, Merchant, or Intelligent Farmer is all sufficient. To the effort to teach the extraordinary, "the [abstrue?], and things removed from common use" may be attributed the failure to make useful characters, and the filling of society with failures, the effete, incompetent, cranky and visionary, if not the swindler and the thief. Be useful first; and let ornament and superexcellence come where the soil is rich, and they may spring spontaneous. To attempt to train the common mind to all the achievements of Newton, Euclid, Cuvier and Spencer, is to overwhelm the weak, and to waste our money and time on natural dullness.

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[We should therefore say stop at the?] useful. [Be particular in this?] no room for the neglect of whatever may be necessary to practical life. The world will always produce poets and dreamers enough without special culture.

This practical education cannot but promote the next phase in human civilization, the complete reconciliation of capital and labor. It must come from capital. Capital is able and intelligent. Labor is weak and ignorant. Labor can only growl, and perhaps do a little riot and murder, if not appeased in time. Capital must find the remedy and apply it. And it must pay. Yes, every good practical thing must pay. If it do not pay it is a failure.

The next move to a higher civilization will be for the capitalist to lay out his farm of a few thousand acres, to build his hamlet or commune, after

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