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B 505: Lecture on the Aborigines of Australia and papers on Wirradhurrei dialect, 1837-1840
and Buduambang - a wild Duck, these & many others are names applied to the Aborigines,and thereby a relationship is supposed to be produced, not in the slightest degree owing to any resemblance of certain animals, but altogether arbitrary. Thus the Kangaroo is related to the [indecipherable] an eagle hawk & so forth & two names descending from the mother alternately succeed each other so that the grand child bears always the name of the grandmother. The Oppussum for instance is mother to the Kangaroo rat & the Kangaroo rat again [indecipherable] the Oppossum. Some of their names consitute the nearest relationship so that they call each other brothers, others produce a kind of relationship & they are called by them little brothers or little sisters, that is, related in a less degree. Such a relationship may exist where there is not the slightest natural relationship to be [found?] for some generations. But as to inter marriages between such imaginary relatives they are looked upon just as unseemly as if the nearest relatives
brother & sister married each other. To illustrate this I will now relate to you a story (one of two instances that I might relate) when I acted somewhat in the capacity of matchmaker & tried to induce some young people to break through this absurd custom, for even they could not help perceiving its absurdity. We had a young woman who was [crossed out: nearly as well civilized as] almost as civilized and as well insructed as the generality of servants,[ as a servant she was most useful and could favourably compare with Europeans, her habits were [crossed out: very clean] distinguished too, by clean linen and she had attained so a [indecipherable] amount of religious knowledge. Being marriageable at the time I speak of I was informed that she was destined to become the wife of one of the most savage men we had in the Neighbourhood who at the same time acted always in a very treacherous manner against our efforts to civilize & christianize the Aborigines. I knew the girl would be miserable with such a man and all our instruction would be lost. I ascertained from her that she disliked the fellow, but had no choice left to refuse. I further ascertained that between her & a young man, partially civilized, there existed some reciprocal feelings
of affection, but they dared not think of ever being married, because they happened to [indecipherable] [indecipherable] ficticiously related, otherwise there was not the slightest ['affinity' crossed out] consanguinity between them. However when they heard that I would approve of their union, they agreed to be wedded with the understanding that I would protect them against any interference from their own people. This I promised to do to the utmost in my power & they felt secure. [crossed out: I had to perform a distant] They wer solemnly united in my presence though not exactly according to our usual Marriage Ceremony. As sooon as their Marriage became known among the Blacks, the greatest possible excitement was produced amonst them. It was unpardonable in these two young people to marry each other being brother & sister & it was very wrong of [indecipherable] further to allow it, or even to aid them in their unlawful doings, but of course he knew no better, such was their murmerings & loud complaints. They even went to the nearest Crown Lands Commisioner & Magistrate [crossed out: exclaiming against me ] complaining [crossed out: in violent terms] against me & upbraiding the young couple. The worthy Magistrate paid me a friendly visit to ascertain
what had caused such a burst of indignation & clamour among the Blacks, and was highly amused when I explained the nature of our offence. Had this young couple not lived under my protection & had the old men not been afraid of the European police, I have no doubt their lives would have been in danger. still after a time the Blacks became more or less [reconciled?] to this unlawful match * But I must hasten to another subject lest I weary you with the one on which I have enlarged so much. I will give you then a statement as far as I can of the [crossed out: custom] ceremony of making young men & its probable origin and aim. It is the age of about 14 or so, from 13 to 15, or as you [indecipherable] may imagine at the age of puberty every boy is subject to a new rule, to great restrictions, and has to pass through a certain ceremony to be initiated in this his changed condition his head or hair also is dressed [in margin: from this time in the usual fashion with a band around the same. The custom may remind one of the toga of manhood put on by the Romans also] The ceremony is this: As any serious voice is first heard resembling somewhat the bellowing of cattle several nights in succession at a convenient distance from the camp. This is [crossed out: solemnly] gravely likened to by all & explained by the old men to be the call of Bubu, a mysterious being, he does summon some [crossed out: young] boys to [crossed out: be made] attend
the ceremony of being made young men. After a few days the old men name the [crossed out: young men] boys who are to obey this mysterious call, the whole camp moves off to the Burborg some times several neightboring tribes join in the ceremony. It usually takes place in a certain spot. A circle is formed by clearing the grass or shrub away. The women & children are kept at a distance . After various preliminary movements when all is arranged & the boys placed in the middle of the circle, the elders now surrounding them a mysterious huge looking being masked with branches makes his appearance, then the ceremony commences. The particulars of it are generally kept a profound secret among the Blacks, no European is admitted to witness the proceedings. But the [crossed out: young men] boys passing through this ordeal are kept nearly all night standing, have to pass through various gestures & movements, have with great threat sustain rules & customs [crossed out: inculcated] enforced on them and further brought under a kind of military submission to the old men, have for a few weeks to remain by themselves in a retired place and are prohibited certain kinds of food most of the best [crossed out: kinds] sorts of food especially eggs. [Margin: In some tribes a first tooth is knocked out as part of the ceremony imposed on the young men but that is not general, it was not done in the Wellington tribe. The young men are thus
fish (- The richest & most delicate [crossed out: kind of] food is always alloted to the the elderly men. -) Above all are the newly made young men forbidden to come into the presence of a woman, they dare not ever speak to their own mothers or sisters. This has often caused us much inconvenience, when we wished to instruct them together or assemble them at Divine Service or address them at the camp. I might be standing at the front of my house, conversing with some women, a few men might come in sight, wanting to see me, but they were bound to make a detour some 2 or 300 yards off and I had either to follow them, or else first warn the women off before they could speak to me. Theses rules have no doubt a well [crossed out: intended] considered origin aiming at a moral tendency, and serve in general to uphold the authority of the elderly men as rulers. I believe that they are generally strictly observed, though I caught now & then some of the young men peeping at the women, [crossed out: when themselves] through the slabs when in their huts. These rules are very gradually relaxed, some regarding certains kinds of food are binding till the men reach the middle age. Many of you would be doubtful or curious to know, who this mysterious Bubu might be, I will
kariadulm, poor fellow. nganbinya, to lean. gawal, flat (valley). bunbarrbirra, to roll yullon, green waddle. badin, grandmother. mudda mudda do [ditto]. brarugan, granddaughter. burradar, the pine. ba, winter. yarra, gum. yarraga, spring. gigia, a large gumtree. (Irebang, summer). Warrabarra, to make a noise. bangolong, ...? billar, the swamp oak. Billabong, the constellation, milkway. mirrinmarra, to drag (along the ground). giredurai morning star. Dirmarra murru to pick the nose. ngarro gagamil ( a star seen in the ... day ...?) Dinmaigunnanna do [ditto] Mammaba, grandfather. Ballumbambal, the dead ones, the ancient. Dendima, the constellation, pleiades or seven sisters. gurramurrbireen, to sign. Marragangang, widow. gunguarri, the halo or circle round the moon. marragir, windower.
Irrawarai, a dark big cloud thunder cloud. Gulbarduringa, to follow after. miggemanna, the act of lightening, ?. Karrai, sand murruburaigarra, to thunde. Irinya, to tremble iradu ngalgurra, the sunshines. Mumbanna, to cry (when mourning) Nguaga guin yaddang gui..? yalmambi, give it to him be cause he taught me. yongngaibarra to cry (....? the former). yaddang, (because) well, right. Mugganna, to quick rep. Yallu ware, yes it is so. Ngamarra, to ...? Gabbargabbur, the gree colour. Nimmarra to ...? gurrawia, flower. guarra, to fetch back dang, some kind of roots. gudarra, draught of wind, current of air. warrul, echo. guddarra, ...? budgabudga, moth. yanna mambirra, to let go winnangadurinya, to think about. bunaimambirra, to let fall. monar, very hot.
Dalmaraima: to eat after having picked it up A few Etymological remarks. Marra: to do, make, joined to another verb, or what is more frequently done, to nouns, and adjectives answers exactly the Latin, Facio or Fiero as: Giwai, sharp. Giwaimarra to sharpen Girra, wet, moist. Giwamarra to moisten. Gullai, Net. Gullaimarra To net, make a net Hence also the practice of the Aborigines to form marra. English verbs expressive of an action formerly unknown to them as: To grind. Grindmarra, Ringarra [indecipherable] From the foregoing observations, it will be seen that verbs ending in Marra as also irra (excepting when they are terminations of modified verbs) are Intransitive or Neuter. Both rules however admit of some exceptions.
Addition to the Modification 21 Nâna Implies the adverb "after" as: Brumalnâna: to beat after another Bunbannana: to run after another Ngannana: look after one 22 Ginga: Implies precedent, before, as: Bumalinga: to beat first, before another Ngallinginga: to return first 23 Naringa: joined to a few verbs implies that the action is done by falling, also figuratively expressive of a stay, or next after moving. 1) Banganaringa: to break by falling Dalbanaringa: to be dashed by falling 2) Winaringa: to settle down
Warrannaringa: to make a call & stay a little 24 Bilâna (or inbilâna) it is always preceded by "m" even after " l •. It implies the idea of moving on, going along, & gradually getting into whilst engaged in an action.
[number 18 underlined and written in pencil over the second last line of text, right hand side]