to the Police officer who was here waiting for him. He
was taken to Maitland for trial and [was - crossed out] acquitted
the man who brought the charge against him being
severely reprimanded by the Judge - I mention this to
show the confidence the poor black placed in me.
Now in reply to your printed appendix I will try +
answer the questions as fully as I can.

(1) Gresford a Post town - The Greengai tribe under a chief or
"Nooragine" Boundaries Eccleston on the North. Paterson South
Dungog East + Singleton West - (or there abouts)

(2.) For the most part Kumbo. Some of the Ipais amongst them

(3.) The woman about to be married makes a fire and a camp
when the man is lead to the spot by his Father or any old man of
the tribe, after camping together the ceremony is complete and
considered final. The woman is chosen if possible from a neighbouring
tribe - no relations are allowed to marry. Not even cousins

(4.) The descendants of the Royal family are always looked up to
they are called Kumbo or Ipai according to their descent

(5.) Father "Beeungar" Mother "Kinger" Brother "Bingi" Sister "Naneen"
Uncle "Cowan" Aunt "Cumming" Cousin "Keeparrah".

(6.) The tribe is governed by a chief or king (who must be an aged man
before he is thought much of) which office they hold by descent
the govt. is not in the hands of Drs or wizards -

(7.) Consists of the oldest and (as a rule) [the - crossed out] most intelligent men of
the tribe. I once came suddenly on a group of these old fellows sitting
in a circle in deep deliberation and was told by one of them in
a whisper not to tell the other Blacks what I had seen . Those
men are thought a great deal of by the members of the tribe -

8. Any offence of a serious nature is punished thus or rather the
offender. He is obliged to stand at a distance with a shield or Hulaman
whilst a certain number of spears (varying according to the
enormity of the offence), are thrown at him - if he can defend
himself well and good, if not he is either killed or seriously
wounded - Individuals fight it out with any weapon present
at hand -

9. There is a messenger attached to every tribe who is a sort of "flag
of truce" and can go safely from one tribe to another
The red net worn as a band round the forehead is used as an
emblem for calling the tribe together. Nothing is known here so far
as I can learn of message sticks. When a messenger appears in
sight, a peculiar cooee is given when all in hearing assemble
to hear what he has to say but not a word is spoken to
the messenger till he thinks proper to unburden his message.
and some times he sits quite silent for a long time - but
when "the spirit moves him" his eloquence is wonderful
and listened to with the greatest attention.

Notes and Questions

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In other letters I have seen Gringai rather than Greengai tribe.


Kumbo and Kimbo are both in letters.