Port Stephens
Gringai tribe


E W Boydell
Donald McRae

The boundaries given for these tribes are as follows:
Geawegal - The territory claimed by them may be defined as being part of the valley of the Hunter River
extending to each lateral watershed, and from twenty to thirty miles along the valley of the River and
each side of [??] x The Gringai occupied country bounded by Eeclestin in the north
Paterson in the South, Dungog in the East and Singleton in the west x [The Dungog br- crossed out]
To the westward of the Grangai there was a tribe the name of which I have not learned, my
informants speaking of it merely as the "Dungog tribe" from its headquarters; its boundaries
appear to have been roughly speaking a strip on either side of the Williams River above
and below Dungog? But this area is overlapped by the country occupied by people who
called themselves Tukala, or Mundi-gutart meaning "big mob", that a large tribe, or tribal division
It is evident these boundaries over lap each other but taking the tribal groups mentioned
as representing the occupants of the country [of the Gri- crossed out] the Hunter and Manning Rivers, there remains
unaccounted for only the upper part of the former, the lower part of the latter and the
tribes of the immediate coast down to Newcastle. Of those whose headquarters meet at Port Stephens
the only information I possess is derived from the work of Dawson and are as follows
[The upper Hunter and the Dividing Ranges and fall inland therefore were occupied
by the Kamilaroi tribe (p-)] o A section of the Kamary occupied the
upper sources of the waters flowing into the Hunter River, and the fall [into the - crossed out]
from the Dividing Range inland. (1) They extended down coastwards to where it came in
contact with the tribes I have mentioned. The Dividing Range between the Munmurra and
Talbragar sinks down so that a traveller would not think he was crossing the
boundary between any waters, much less those which divide the Darling waters from
those of the Hunter River o The [Gringai - crossed out] Geawegal [and the Gringai - crossed out] were always
in dread of war with the Karnaroi, who intruded down the heads of the Hunter across
from the Talbragar to the Munmurra waters, and even occasionally made raids
as far as Jerry's Plains (o----o Transfer to here)

(1) [?Vasely?]
(2) G. W. Rusden p.

Notes and Questions

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each side of [??] x

each side of Glendon x --- Reference Native Tribes of Southeast Australia - Appendix G. Howitt