Howitt and Fison Papers

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In the left hand margin: (1) On the Kulin tribes division of food

W. Thomas-Latrobe Paper p65 They seldom ? travel more than a six mile a day. In their migratory movements all are employed. Children are getting gum, knocking down birds and women are digging up roots killing bandicoots, getting grubs; thde men hunting kangaroo, & scaling trees for opossum etc etc. They mostly are at the encampment about an hour before sundown, (crossout) the women first, who get fire and water duty then have their spouse arrive.

They hold that bush and all it contains are men's general property. The private property is only what utensils are carried in the bag and the [?eating? calimd] event the success of the day; hence at the close, those who have been successful divide with those who have not been so. None lacketh while others have it nor is the gift considered as a favour, but the right brought to the needy and thrown down at his feet. (1 in a circle)

Written in the left hand margin: Hreung game Woeworang [sic]

If a Woewoung man when out hunting killed a Kangaroo it was divided in accordance with tribal rules a (crossout) (food obtained - crossout) assuming that the man had a comrade with him, they must take out the entrails and unless the other men required for some purpose, roast the kangaroo (whole. then - ... an insert written over the top ) One forequarter was kept by the man for himself, his wife and children. A leg or (scratch out) the other forequarter to his comrade. The head and an arm (foreleg) sent to the man's father and mother. A ( a ie ly a ) that loins (mus - scratch out) went to his wife’s father and mother the caul his wife, and the tail went to someone else.

In these tribes as in (the - scratch out) those of Gippsland a (the - scratched out) man his obliged to (provide - scratched out) give a certain amount of the game [?present to his?] tribe wife’s father. In instan [sic] if he caught five opossoums, he kept one, the next his wife's father and the other (?horliees?) (the xxx - crossed out) . This appears like (to - crossed out) a perpetual purchase of the (woman - crossed out) wife. The women also divided the food which the (?arendted?) what the married (?viptoble?)

But if a man hadn’t killed enough game or (?found?) enough (cross out) other food for himself his wife & children then he need not divide it with others. But if he found that his father had no - food, he must give him what he had (?found?) amd go out and look for more. Similarly, if hs wife’s father had no food - and no son to provide (some - crossed out) for him, he would give him food if he had it and seek more for himself. On the other hand if he had - issue and his wife’s father had a (?rupfit?) it would tend more of his daughter to her husband.

The old people that [? k reng?] to the younger that people should divide their food with others (and particularly - inserted) with unwed people and children.

too They said that Bunji was placed where he Law the old people.

Last edit about 1 month ago by Margaret T. Newman

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Mudji - Munangang

[???] - Kaualgar - Billinga [????] [of faith?]

[????]

Bega Charley - najalija Bat ngariba Waterhen

fr father

his sister murunbut [??] wife - wagoora [??]

Chidren both najalaga

Woman sister = tintegallan [??]

Man's brother mūrrōwra emu wren

[next page] [illustration of what appears to be an emu wren with its distinctive bared tail feathers]

[Bradin Boy??] his fath was also nuri..[?]

boy from Bungully [??] Moruya meritjigar long nosed bandicoot and jaraurat night owl

for father

one old man died along time ago called Winbore = Eaglehawk

Last edit about 1 month ago by Kurnai
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also run in another direction and hide the boys hen go away for a time. The "Mudji" or Màrengang is used during the ceremonies as described by Curran. One which I had made with slight convex back and serrated edges. [Illustration of object]. Regarded with great awe by Jacky and Mragula who spoke of it in a low voice and then called the other men to come There closed up so that not a

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the marriage of a [???] [???] Corroboree beginning "Mally Mallay - tariarara" for which Murray Jack had heard formerly at Lambing Flat but heavy rain set in and prevented it.

Jacky said that in the Walgal tribe when a man died his wife did not go to his brother if he had one but his cousin then: [diagram of relationships]

Last edit 19 days ago by J Gibson
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It would be the same as to the mother - it would be her grandson only who would belong to the class [could be clan] for which her husband could be chosen. I cannot regard this in any other light than as a rule formed to enforce separation between those eligible theretofor by class [underlined] but [??] being of the same blood could not intermarry without [??] that which is universally regarded by the present Aborigines as a [?deep pollution?] I doubt not that the idea that the male is the [??] source may have been at the distant time when the subdivisions were formed distinctly held by the aborigines That these subdivisions are

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not universal - which the prohibit of marraige between father + daughter is imorral shows only I think that which generally - the social prohibition existed - in this case a special permission had been [?formed?] in order to [?enforce?] it. That the prohibition was directed to the practice of such intermarriage may be [?conjectured?] by the [?Kunandday?] custom which accompanied the [??] of marriage. Where ever the class ties of kindred are not present the temporary return to communism The [?Kunand obey here?] not the [??] of the classes - [?having?] the more

Last edit over 1 year ago by ALourie
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primitive form of this class with totems. It may be here the place to speak of another prohibition [??] [??] [?unusual?] to Australia [??] that if the slightest intercourse between a woman + her daughter's husband. A diagram may let some light upon this. I like again the case of [??] descent [??] the most ancient condition of society.

[diagram] It is clear that there would not be any inherent prohibition in the class rules in [??] marry

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him. A pity [?all?] both if the class for which he might take a wife - but assuming that the horror of [?polluting?] by mixing the same "blood" existed there as it does now some prohibition would be formed -for B might lawfully marry either A or A', no such prohibition could be found by any arrangement or rearrangement of the classes and sub classes. It must therefore be a social rule - and it has become one of as great stringency as the class rule prohibits the [?mixing?] the same blood in the classes - [?only?] that

Last edit over 1 year ago by ALourie
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while that inability is a man to marry a woman of the same class does not appear either when he is single or married [?unless?] [?only?] inquiry it instantly stands out in strong relief when he obtains a mother in law by marriage. I do not think that the social prohibition as to the mother in law is a [?whit? - could be white] [?man? - looks like mon] [?story? - could be strong] - indeed I am sure it is [??] - than the class prohibition of marriage with a class = sister. It may now be said - there should be a corresponding prohibition between a man

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and his son's wife. A diagram will bring both this and the former case out in good relief

[diagram]

Under [??] descent it is seen that while the son in law is the class husband of the mother in law - the daughter in law is by the class rules already forbidden to the father. No further prohibitions [?issued?] therefore be necessary

Last edit over 1 year ago by ALourie
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[map illustration on page]

July

S- 2 9 16 23 30 M - 3 M 17 St Bendoc T- 4 S Tg B W- B 12 W 26 T- 6 [?R?] R 27 F- S S S B S O 8 15 22 29

Omeo S Sale 5 [??] [??] [?Bdil?] me [?roosy?] Bendoc

Last edit 2 months ago by ALourie
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Grant + Omeo Station - 255 - 1530 Walhalla - [?two100?] - 1200 Foster [?2p160?] - 320 [?Strat?] + Maffra = [?12?50?] - 600 Wagra 2 @ 135 [45, 180 * 2 and 360 written below] - 320 [could be 720] [12, 470, 77 and ?? written underneath] Bdale steamer 12 @ 120 - 1440 Rosedale Bay - 384 Post - coach - 200 [2024 and 6394 written underneath]

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[diagram]

Last edit over 1 year ago by ALourie
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Dec - [?Report?] Omeo - +c +c

Jany - Walhalla + Bdale [??]

Feb - Omeo Walh Bdale

Mch - Wal Bdl Port

Apl - Omeo Wal Bdale

May - Walh Bdale

June - Omeo Bdale - Bendoc Walhalla

July - Wal Bdale Foster

Aug

Last edit over 1 year ago by ALourie
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[diagrams]

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Johnny is [?Walkan?]

Court House [??] Slate + [??] St [?arbor?] value [could be valise] [??] by joints filled by [??] and iron ore about [?40 or 400?] [?tons?] iron on [??] side [??] much [??] corrugated [??] by joints - [difficult to read this next bit] half mile [?for or from?] twonship [??] left bank [?Scister?] sediment [??] [??]

Last edit over 1 year ago by ALourie
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