1 1. Introduction. The theories of the Rev John Mathews and of Mr Andrew Lang as to the origin of the organisation of Australian Tribes by the amalgamation of two tribes - one for instance being Mukwara - or Eaglehawk and the other Kilpara - or Crow.-
2. I [am - crossed out] have not been able to accept these theories because the whole of the evidence relating to the [word crossed out] social organisation of these tribes points to the origin of the two classes having been by the bisection of an original whole.
3. This being the case I have thought it well to make a careful investigation of the evidence upon which both of those authors have based their theories.
4. It was I think, Mr Mathews who first formulated it in his work Eaglehawk & Crow. (pp----).
Mr. Lang's theory will be found in his work The Secret of the Totem p.p., as follows:-
I have endeavoured ^but unsuccessfull during the last ten years to obtain ['furthere' crossed out] further information in that part of New South Wales, where these tribes lived, where local organisation was based upon the two class names Muknara and Kilpara.
[Lines crossed out: In this I every endeavour I hoped to be able to ascertain in these enquire] I also wished of those investigations to ascertain whether [...?] any of the tribes the words [names- crossed out] Mukwara and Kilpara meant respectively EagleHawk or Crow.
The information [who as to these tribes - crossed out] given in my work "The Native Tribes of South East Australia was collected before 18-?.
It seems that during the twenty or twenty five years which have elapsed since then, the tribal organisation has [been- crossed out] in a great measure broken down. The aborigines have rapidly died out [or that at the present time - crossed out] and the survivors no longer regard the old boundaries of their tribal country but [are - crossed out] interchange their habitats at will. As an instance of the [great - crossed out] sweeping changes which have taken place in the tribes I may quote a statement made by Mr. - the manager of the Brenanni [Alrryie?] Station in a letter to me. "Quote - Although there are 200 abign in the [?] - there are only six local people amg them."
The present generation of aborigines [word crossed out] know little of the old time customs, and have in many parts [cases- crossed out] [words crossed out] instances in the Upper Darling, where the tribal organisation was in two classes and four sub classes, in some tribes being the Kamili sub class names, the old [?] [word crossed out] rules of marriage have been supplemented by rules which permit marriage [between the - crossed out]
which formerly were prohibited. An intelligent old woman of the now almost extinct Mūranari tribe told my correspondent (1) that [?] the last seventeen years the aborigines there have abandoned their old rules and now "marry just as they please". The case appears to be that in the tribal remnants ['there are now' crossed out] it has been impossible to find husbands or in other cases wives under the old laws. Further that tribal punishments from break of custom have [have done - crossed out] been abandoned through fear of the white people and especially of the police. The only chance of obtaining information as to Co[?ollip] M. [Duns?] the old customs and beliefs is to find old people here and there whose memories go back to the times when the tribal customs [and beliefs - crossed out] were obeyed.
[In - crossed out] About nine months ago I learned that there were two old people living near Wentworth in N.S.W. [who - crossed out] [??] of the [more numerous & peaceful?] Wumbaio Tribe.
2 It is now most difficult to obtain any trustworthy information about the native customs or beliefs, [that is of - crossed out] of the native tribes of [South East Aus - crossed out] [Victoria- crossed out] South Australia, Victoria, N.S.W. or Queensland. The mortality in the tribes has been so great very few of the old people who lived under the primitive tribal customs are now alive. [Indeed- crossed out] Even in Queensland, the latest of the States to be settled the
2 Secret of the Totem p. 160
"Again Mr Bulmer writes "The blacks of the Murray are divided into two classes, the Muk- quarra, or Eagle and the Kilpara or Crow..." Brough Smyth i p.86.
"one myth (1852-53) explains Muk wara and Kilpara as wives of one man; and mothers of the phratries. The other (1878), says that Muk wara was a cosmic Eagle Hawk, Kilpara, a cosmic Crow. They were on hostile terms, like Ormuzd and Ahriman; +c _c (2) Danks J.A.I. XVIII 3 p.p. 281-282.
Eaglehawk and Crow, Kilpara and Muk wara, in one of the myths, made peace, one condition being that "the Murray blacks should be divided into two classes," (phratries) called Mukwara and Kilpara, Eagle Hawk or Crow." (Brough Smyth i pp.423-424)
p 161 Mr Lang then says "the evidence thus is that Mukwara meant Eaglehawk, that Kilpara meant Crow, in the language of some tribe which, so far, I have not been able to identify in glossaries."
What is really said in Brough Smyth's work vol1-p.86 is "Mr Bulmer says "The blacks of the Murray are divided into two classes the Muk-quarra or Eagle and the Kil-parra or Crow.
What Mr Bulmer says speaking of myths at p. 422-424 of vol. 1 Brough Smyth is as follows - The Aborigines of the Northern parts of Victoria say that the world was created by beings whom they call Nooralie - beings that existed a very long time ago - - - they believe that the beings who created all things had severally the form of the Crow and the Eagle. There was continual war between these two beings, but peace was made at length. They agreed that the Murray blacks should be divided into two classes, the Muk-quarra or Eaglehawk and the Kil-Parra or Crow.
[Inserted in left margin] Ask Bulmer which tribes in the "Northern Parts of Victoria [has this- crossed out] this refers to.