No one says or thinks in the Dieri that, as Mr Lang puts it
(op.cit.p.46), she the woman 6, "collaborated in giving birth to him"
the man 9, any more than we should do so, as to a stepmother. The position
[on -crossed out] of 6 as to her sister's children, follows from her position as the
wife of her sister's husband. The Dieri no more thinks when he applies
the term ngandri (mother) to two women, that they have collaborated
in the birth, than we do when we apply the term "grandmother" to two
separate women, that they have collaborated in the birth of any one

The term ngandri as applied to both 5 and 6 carries with it a strong
feeling of kinship, which may be estimated from my remark (op.cit.p184)
that " in the event of a tippa-malku wife dying a pirrauru wife will
take care of her children and attend to them with affection.

The filial terms to be considered are (m), son, brother's son,
wife's sister's son, and (f), son, sister's son and husband's brother's

The man 9 is the son of 1, and 11 of 2, but 9 is also the son of 2,
therefor [sic] the term son also includes (m) brother's son, and as 9 is
son of the sister of 6, the wife of 2, this term also includes (m) wife's
sister's son.

Taking 5 as the example of (f) son, sister's son and husband's
brother's son, the same line of argument will show that those relation
-ships, as we reckon them, are all included in the one term "son".

There are in the Dieri language three fraternal terms, neyi,
elder brother, kaku elder sister, and ngatata younger brother or sister.
As one term will suffice, to illustrate the inter-relations of all,
I shall select neyi.

The man 9 is the son of his joint fathers 1 and 2, so is 11 and
having the same father they are brothers, one of them being the elder. (1)
Similarly, as 11 is the son of his joint ngandri 5 and 6, who are also
the mothers of 9, he and 11 are brothers. I must point out, however
~ strange it may appear to us, that a man's younger brother may be
older than himself, under the conditions I have explained.

How strong and real this fraternal bond may be, can be estimated by
the case which I recorded (op.cit.p.237), where an elder brother suffered
the death penalty stoically, at the hands of a pinya for a blood-feud
incurred by evil magic, attributed to his ngatata or younger brother.

(1) It is noteworthy in this respect that in the Bingbinga tribe pappa includes elder brother and
also father's elder brother's son, while pappaia includes younger brother and
also father's younger brother's son. 111

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