These fraternal relationships explain why it is that in Austra
lian tribes, the children of two or more brothers or of two or more
sisters, are all brothers and sisters.

It may be as well to remind my reader that the terms of relation
ship, with one or two exceptions, denote a group and not an indivi
dual. Therefore the term "father" includes also his broth
ers, own and tribal, "mother" also includes her sisters own and tribal,
and so also with the other terms.

One of those exceptions is the Dieri term tippa-malku which denotes
that a male and female noa are in the relation of betrothal, this being
a reciprocal term.

There is another term, the Dieri yimari which may be considered
here, and which denotes "husband's brother" and "wife's sister". When the
tippa-malku marriage was made between 2 and 6 the former became the
yimari of 5, and 5 became the yimari of 2. In our system we differen
tiate between these relationships of "husband's brother and "wife's
sister", calling them for distinction "brother-in-law" and "sister-in
law". But the Dieri make no distinction, because the term yimari is
necessarily reciprocal. An inspection of the diagram shows that 1, is
the "husband's brother" of 6, while 6 is the "wife's sister" of 1.
This term must have arisen out of and also denotes the reciprocal
relation in question.

The next step is to compare the terms of relationship used by
the other tribes, with those of the Dieri.

An inspection of the tables will show that some tribes have one
word which may be likened to our "spouse", and which includes all the
marital terms, for instance the Dieri noa, the Urabunna nupa, the
Kurnandaburi abaija, and Arunta unawa and the Watu-Watu nopui.
Other tribes have two names, one being male and the other female,
corresponding to our "husband" and "wife", such as the Kurnai bra
and maian.

For comparison with the Dieri terms I shall take [those of -crossed out] the
Kurnai, because although those of any of the other tribes would have done as
well, the latter is one of those which have made the greatest advance
socially and is therefore in marked contrast to the former.

The Kurnai tribe is not like the Dieri divided into two
exogamous intermarrying classes, with female descent, but into numerous

Page Notes

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Margaret T. Newman

Are the links used consistently? E.g. Only one per reference per page. I.e. if one linked name X is repeated then a link is not attached to the other uses in that page of name X.


Hi Margaret, if you use Autolink [top right side of transcription page] and the word has previously been linked on another page, then it will automatically link all the appropriate words on the page (for example on this page all of the times Dieri is mentioned). Click on Autolink before saving. This way also, you can remove any links you do not think match this page (for example, Billy has been linked, but there are many times Billy is used referring to other people, so I would delete the double square brackets around this one before saving, to avoid confusion).