XM453 Natives Tribes of South East Australia response to R H Mathews

ReadAboutContentsHelp

Pages

21
Needs Review

21

The Wongtubon tribe is mentioned by Mr Mathews as one in which there is a complete absence of exogamy. (p 56

According to the Native informants "the people who were of the opposum totem ['was' crossed out] were almost extinct at Mossgill."

That is in other words that the normal marriages could not take place because so many of the tribe had died.

This tribe has descent in the female line and therefore the woman whose children would be Ipai and Ipatha-opossum, must be a "Butha-opossum: whose normal husband would be ^a MuniKangaroo" man.

If there were no Muni-Kangaroo man these Butha-opossum could not find a husband under the old rule, and there would not be any Ipai and Ipatha- children.

To ['avoid this difficulty' crossed out] meet the difficulty a new rule was introduced, ['by' crossed out] which, according to the native informants, causes the child which should have been Ipsi-opossum to "rank" as Kumboopossum. the subjoined diagram of the anomalous marriages (N. T. p ) which brings this about

m. Kubbi-bandicoot f. Ipatha-opossum

m & f - Kumbo & Butha opossum

The important facts which became evident in this instance are, that the Wongtubon tribe, whose country was exceptionally liable to droughts was tending toward destruction and that to ['supply' crossed out] make

Last edit 3 months ago by Lucio Alvarez
22
Needs Review

22

20 ['17 22' crossed out]

up for the deaths in the several totems, new rules were introduced permitting marriages which were hitherto prevented by the exogamous rule of the subclasses and totems.

The ['result' crossed out] gravity of the position may be judged of by the comparison of the new rules as compared with the old rules.

I do not know when the Wongtubon country was first occupied but in 1885 there was evidently the usual result of contact with the white man namely the imoending extinction of the tribe

[Kamtrari t.........] marriage ([here?])

Last edit 3 months ago by Lucio Alvarez
23
Needs Review

23

16

According to the native informants the new marriage rule caused the child ['of the' crossed out] Ipai-opossum to "rank" under the new marriage rule as Kumbo-opossum. The way in which this was put was not at all clear but it ['cam' crossed out] may be explained by the following diagram.

Last edit 3 months ago by Lucio Alvarez
24
Needs Review

24

['20' crossed out] 21

S3

The causes which have produced ['the new' crossed out] innovations upon the old exogamous rule

The next step will be to show how the new rules of marriage have necessarily arisen

We are safe in assuming as a starting point that the Native Tribes of North East Australia with which I am now concerned, were in accord with the condition of life in their primitive savage state. This was totally changed by the advent of the white man and with the result that the aborigines have been more or less rapidly driven out whenever settlement of their hunting ground by white men took place

This may come as a surprise to many and I shall therefore give a few facts from New South Wales, {I.....d] and Victoria which will suffice for a brief statement of a subject for which ^there is not space here. ['is wanting' crossed out]

The colony of New South Wales was [f... c.....d] ['first established' crossed out] in 1788 when the town of Sydney was esablished, under Governor Phillip, who in 1800 estimated the aboriginal population between Broken Bay and Botany Bay at 3.000 (1) In 1798 great numbers of the aborigines died from a disease which the Medical offices of the settle ments pronounced to be small pox (2). These tribes have long been extinct.

['In Throughout the whole In' crossed out] That branch of the Kamilaroi nation, which inhabited the [Gurdis?] River valley, ['there were' crossed out] numbered in the year 1839, 7,000 individuals. ['At the present time there' crossed out] ['are only' crossed out] According to the latest information available to me, there were ^in 1901 in the whole of New South Wales, an area of 310.700 square miles, ['only in' crossed out] only 7434 of whom the full [bloods?] were 5097. ['I have already given particulars as to the' crossed out] [The next 4 lines are crossed out:] diminution of the tribe on the Darling River below Bourke, and may add that the whole of that river was [v...fied] ^by tribes in both [lands?] by tribes for 400 miles. I was lately in th Lower Darling and found that there were only now as this survivor of the

[Left margin:] (1) Burnett History of Australia [Dr....y] and [Col.....] p.

(2) op. cit. p.

Last edit 3 months ago by Lucio Alvarez
25
Needs Review

25

There are now only nine adults and five children the survivors of a ['first' crossed out]

populous & fierce tribe ^of the Wumbaw who ['which' crossed out] in 1800? contested the passage of Captain Short ^down the Murray River at the [Juncture?] of the Darling ['and the Murray Rivers' crossed out] with it.

In Victoria colonisation first commenced when Batman and Faulkner crossed Bass Strait from Tasmania ^in 1835 and settled in the bank of the Yana River where Melbourne was situated.

Mr. Mathews deals only with the tribes of Western ['Aus' crossed out] Victoria and I restrict my remarks to that district, an area of some square miles.

['In the' crossed out] Western Victoria was occupied by white men for pastoral purposes in the year 1837-46. In the year ^1853 Captain [Foster Fyans?] was the Commissioner of [trun?] land ['estimated' crossed out] in a letter to Governor Latribe ['estimated' crossed out] ^['says that' crossed out] said "I am convinced that the number of aborigines ['in the district' crossed out] in 1837 in this district could not exceed 3.000, and I feel thoroughly convinced the race will be extinct in 20 years or less.

I do not know what the number of aborigines ['may be' crossed out] belonging to the Western Victoria now is but ['to' crossed out] the total aboriginal population of Victoria was [not?] 271 including 81 halfcasts ['in' crossed out] on 20 June 1907.

In that part of [I.....d] ^south of [Lat...] which is within the bounds which I have indicated in my Native Tribes as the "South East" quarter of Australia, ['many' crossed out] there was at one time a large aboriginal population. According to the earliest reliable statistics there were 200.000 aborigines in the whole of Queensland, ['and now' crossed out] reduced to 25.000 in 1901. There were 8.000 within 50 miles of Brisbane, now reduced to very few, and 3.000 on Frazer's Island. In 1901 there were only 3.600 south of lat[itude] 22 degrees, exclusive of 350 ['there' crossed out] upon the "reserves" at [Deeling Auk, Duerunder] and Frazers Island (1)

[Left margin:] Letters from [Kitu?] [Punees?] - p 124

(1) [I....] Yearbook 1901 - p. p.

Last edit 3 months ago by Lucio Alvarez
Displaying pages 21 - 25 of 29 in total