In a former communication to this institute (1) I Reviewed the different class systems which up till then had come under my notice. I now propose to write some further particulars which are important as showing that the various class systems are regarded by the Aborigines as being the equivalents of each other, as explaining more clearly the different types on which the different various systems are constructed and finally as the way the range broadly the geographical range of the types. Some little light is also afforded by these additional particulars on the manner of growth and decay of the systems. In order to make succeeding remarks as clear as possible to the reader I have added hereto a sketch map, showing approximately the boundaries of the several types of system (2). These boundaries are necessarily only approximate and will be liable to modification as further local details come in. But making free allowance for this I do not anticipate that these alterations and additions will disturb the broad and important features which an inspection of the sketch map shows. (1) Journal of the Anth Inst (2) I have at present no data to show the extent Of country covered by the Waramunga type.
S[ection]2. [Underlined: The classes are the equivalents of each other]
[crossed out - Before] In comparing the class divisions and totems [crossed out - used] of any great group of allied tribes such as that comprised in the term “Kamilaroi” one finds that [crossed out - the] each component tribe has some more or less marked difference or variation either in the names of the subclasses or in the character or number of the totems. These [crossed out - variations] differences [crossed out - can] are often [crossed out - be seen to] more dialectal variations in names, but in other cases they amount to actual difference in structure of the system or in the ceremonial [crossed out - (1)] birds, reptiles &c which constitute the totem groups. When a still larger aggregate of tribes is examined the variations become larger and the difference wider. But yet no doubt are to be felt that [crossed out - these] the classes and totem groups are [crossed out - in] equivalent. for [arrow to two lines below - over wide areas] the general identity of structures and of the fundamental lens of the classes [insert arrow here] [crossed out - suggest equivalence]. I have [crossed out - evident] evidence to put this suggests [as sorting] is the [primary?] test and the result has been that the absolute identity and equivalence of the fundamental "primary classes" has been [crossed out - found] established beyond doubt in tribes always in a line extending from south to north across the Australia continent, from Mt Gambier in its [crossed out - this] south [??] have to [crossed out - near to the] the Gulf of Carpentaria in north Queensland. Similar [??] [??] tribes [resr?] from Brisbane on the East coast [crossed out - to the not in] far up the [country?] of
[arrow to under LMN note 3]
South Australia [crossed out - and] (2) [crossed out - can also be made with some certainty in [??] ] [crossed out - River.] This much having been done [say?] little doubt can remain that further [??] will establish the same [??] throughout the [crossed out - Aust] [states?] of Australia.
[Left margin note: I think there is no need to supplement "animals" by "birds reptiles" - "Animals &c" covers the whole ground.]
[Left margin note: (1) x use the word "animals" here in a restricted seems as distinguished from "birds, reptiles &c" or quadripeds(?) ]
[Left margin note: I felt the strongest [??] that future investigation will show the equivalence of the class systems extends to Western Australia. [crossed out - which amounts to saying one] as the words to the whole of Australia. The four intermarrying classes have been recorded for instance in Western Australia by [?ment?] to their [??] and also by correspondents of Mr Fison & myself. West Australia (?)
In this connection I may note that the boundaries of any one class system are usually wider than those of a single tribe and that the boundaries of a “type” of system [crossed out - such as] have a still wider extent and include [crossed out - tribes] aggregates of tribes which may well be termed nations for they are bound together by a community of classes which indicates a community of descent and which is usually accompanied by more or less frequent intermarriage.
In the following table I have shown some of the systems which are each others equivalents.
[Left margin note: for the present(?) ]
I have taken the primary divisions for comparison and in some instances also the subclasses while omitting the totem groups which are not essential to my present purpose and which would be of use mainly to determine some doubtful case of equivalence. Moreover in a subsequent section I shall separately discuss them.
[Left margin note: ? +]
In order to bring the questionof equivalence within the shortest range of views I have abbreviatd the commuted chain by taking those which are most typical. It must not be supposed that the tribes quoted touch each other for they are [crossed out - in] some of them hundreds of miles apart. It is the class systems which touch and the tribes quoted are good [crossedout - evidence] examples; the particular [crossed out - class divis] social [crossed out - duren] organization to which they respectively belong.
In the table the chain apparently ends at the [Belyando? River] in Queensland. The fact really is that the [crossed out - class names Mallera.] So then with class system is formed on the [??] of the Flinders River [crossed out - when] in a slightly [??] form of name
Quote here Bob Napier [...?] [ie?] [Dusty?] ... …………… Eg Ipai & Ku….[presumably Kumbo] [ALP?] Cameron Eg Krokitch & Ga… [presumably Gamatch]
[Jury?] = marriage [Muy?] = [yarringo?] [Grass?] = [Dathing?] [Ba?] = [o lingo?]
[Yungarn?] - = [Buniba?] [??] = [??] [Gortch?] = [(??)] - [Balun?] [Gorbero?] = [(obera?]) = [Thinine?]
as given by Mr. E. Palmer in a valuable paper on the subtribes (1) the four class system of which that of the Belyando River is an example ceases at the MaiKolen tribe which is the first tribe on the [crossed out - Flinders River] (Cloncurry R) having a peculiar set of class divisions compared of four male and female names which thence attain to the shores of the Gulf of Carpentaria. When however one considers that the only differences in the two systems is that the female name with the [crossed out - [??] ] MaiKolen is distanced from the male name, that is to say that the brother and sister have defined names, while with the Belyando tribe the sister name is formed \by the addition of a feminine affix to the name of the brother,
[Insert left margin note here: (?) of [??] I [??] with the common marriage of the [Kartou?] type]
one might expect that the laws of marriage and descent being the same, the equivalence of the two systems would be recognized where the two tribes having the respective system touch and intermarry.
This equivalence has however not yet been worked out but when it is the one which will be supplied which is required to commute the chain of equivalent systems from Mt Gambier on the Southern coast of [Australia?] [??] to us [McArthur?] River in the Gulf of Carpentaria in the northern Australia a distance of 1600 in a straight line
[crossed out - The possible double now remains] In some border tribes I find that the people claim the equivalent classes of each tribe, that is to say the classes peculiar to the group to which their own tribe belongs and also those which are equivalent to them in the adjoining tribe. For instance
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(1) Notes on some Australian tribes of by G. Palmer [??] of the [Auth?] [??].