word chier, because it inevitablr suggests by its associations the hered-
ditary chieftinships with which we are familiar in some of the Polynesian
tribes. but it certainly is erronius as certain authors state that there
are no men who have controlling powers, and that each man may do that
which is right in his own eyes, without regard to other considerations
than retaliation by the individual who may suffer by his action, or
by his kindred.

I have chosen the term Headman as being less likely to be
misunderstood than that of chief, which as I have before said has associ-
ations in our minds which are not appicableto the Australian Savages,
but if the word chief implies a person having power to direct the people
of his clans or tribe and that his directions or orders are obeyed by them
then I say that the Pinaru, Gweraeil-kurnai, the Ngurungaeta and the
Gommera are chiefs. For although when compared with those of well known
tribes on other parts of the world, their power is limited, yet it is an
actual power of command, coupled with a certain measure of ability to
compel obedience.

I have constantly observed in those tribes with which I have had
personal acquaintance that the old men met at some place, apart from the
camp and discussed matters of importance, much as arrangements to be
made for hunting, or for festive or ceremonial meetings or indeed any
matter of moment to tribe. having made up their minds, one of them would
announce the matter at another meeting at whcich all the men in camp wouldbe pre-
sent, sitting or standing round, while younger men remained at the
outside. St such a general meeting the younger the man the less he would
have to say, indeed I never knew a young man who had only been lately
initiated, to presume to say anything to join in the discussion.

In the Dieri tribe such meetings were composed of the heads

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