75

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In the Gringai tribe individuals fight out a personal quar-
rel with any weapons nearest at hand. But in case of serious offences
which concern the tribesmen the offender has to stand out, with a
shield (hielaman), while a certain number ofspears varying according to
the magnitude of the offence are thrown at him. If he can defend himself,
well and good, if not then he is either injured or killed. (I)
In the Kamiloroi tribes serious complaints were made of the conduct of a Murri, a
council of the Headman might decree his death. (2).

44A here

The principal social restraints in vogue were laws of satis-
faction for injury done, by the offender submitting to an ordeal, by
which he submitted himself to danger, and they required that the offender
should run the risk of a similar injury to theone he had done. According
to the magnitude of his offence, he had to receive one or more spears from
men who were relatives of the deceased person, or when the injured person
had recovered strength, he might himself discharge the spears at the ofen-
der.

Obedience to such laws was never withheld, but would have been
enforced, with doubt if necessary, by the assembledtribes. Offences against
individuals, or blabbing about the sacred rites of the tribe, and all
breaches of custom, were visitedwith some punishment. Such punishments,
or such ordeals, were always (?) public and the women were present.
Not so the adjudication according to which the penalty was prescribed.

44B (?????????????????????????????)

With the Chepara offences, if trivial were seriously dealt
with, but if for instance a man became insane, or was in the habit
of idiotically muttering to himself, they killed him, because they
thought that it was Wulle (3), was influencing him and that disaster might
happen to the camp. The Headman of the clan would kill him when he slept
in his camp, or he might be told to do so by the superior Headman of the
tribe.

If a man showed the Bull-roarer to a woman both were killed by
the Bugerun himself. Offences against tribal law were punished by death
for instance (4).

(I) Mr. (?) (?)
(2) Mr. C. Naseby.
(3) an evil bein analogous to the Brewin of the Kurnai
(4) Mr James Gibson.

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