1. Spikes solitary.
53 Carex dioica, Linnaeus Syn. C. gynocrates, Wormsk?
Spike solitary, dioecious; stigmas two; culm and leaves smooth, or a little rough at the top; leaves all radical, bristle-form; barren spike linear; fertile spike ovoid, loosely flowered; perigynia oblongovoid, with a short, nearly entire white and membranaceous point, strong nerved, smooth, spreading horizontally at maturity, longer than the rather obtuse scale. Culms 6 to 8 inches high; flowers in May; grows in Swamps.
Michigan; extending east to central New York and north to the Arctic regions. A native also of Europe.
54 Carex scirpoidea, Michaux.
Dioecious; spikes cylindrical, slender; stigmas three; leaves flat; perigynia ovoid, with a minute point, densely hairy, dark purple at maturity, about the length of the pointed minutely ciliate scale. Culms 6 to 8 inches high; Flowers in June.
Plate VIII Fig 1 - a. Fertile spike. b Sterile spike. c Perigynium and stigmas. d The pistillate scale. e The achenium, or nut. f Section of the perigynium.
Michigan - Extends East to N. England and northward to the Arctic Regions.
54 55 Carex pauciflora, Lightfoot.
Syn. C. leucoglochin [Ehrh?].
Spikes few=flowered, staminate above and pistillate below; stigmas three; sterile flowers but one or two; perigynia awl=shaped, reflexed, straw=colored; scale; deciduous; leaves very narrow, shorter than the culm, sub=radical, linear. Grows from 3 to 8 inches high. Flowers in June. Marshes.
Jefferson county Ohio. Extends east to New England. A native also of Europe.
56 Carex Polytuichoides, Muhlenberg
Synon. C. leptalea, Wahl. C. microstachya, Michx.
Spike solitary, small, staminate above, pistillate below; stigmas three; perigynia erect, alternate, ablong, comprened=triangular, obtuse, slightly nerved, entire at the apex, green, trice the length of the ovate scales. Culm 6 to 20 inches high. Flowers in May. Grows mostly in swamps
Plate I fig 17 - a The terminal spike, enlarged. b The perigynium and stigmas. c The pritillate scale. d The achenuem. e A cross section of the achenium.
Common in Wisconsin - has been collected in Illinois, southern Indiana, Ohio, Michigan and about Lake Superior. It has been found as far south as Florida, and extends northward to the Arctic regions.
57 Carex Willdenovii, Schkur.
Spike simple, with 4 to 8 closely imbricated sterile flowers at the top; perigynia 4 to 9 ablong rough on the angles, and tapering beak; scales of the pistillate flowers green & leaflike, the lowest equally or larger than the spike; stigmas three, downey; leaves much longer than the culm. Culm 4 to 12 inches high Flowers in June Dry rocky places in woods and copses.
Plate VIII figure 2 - a The spike or head of flowers. b. Perigynium c The achenium.
Illinois, southern Indiana & Ohio. It has also been found in the Arctic regions, south to Florida, and East to the Western part of N. York.