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infant mortality. In 1975, the infant mortality rate for Inner City North was
21.4 (infant mortalities per 1,000 live births). This rate is much higher than
the city rate of 16.3 and the county rate of 14.6.11 The data for the Inner
City North shows that many of the infant deaths happen after the first month
of life. So it is likely that these deaths are caused by lack of proper health
care rather than by conditions which are present or which occur at birth.

A 1976 survey of households in southeastern Wisconsin collected data on the
presence of diseases and medical conditions. Survey respondents were asked
whether any of 34 diseases/conditions had been present in their households
during the past twelve months. Blacks had experienced 24 of these diseases
in greater proportion than Whites. They were three times more likely to have
had asthma in the past year and twice as likely to have had childbirth compli-
cations, diabetes, and high blood pressure.12 The table on the following page
presents some of the data collected from this survey.

Poor health conditions among Blacks are, in considerable measure, due to the
absence or unavailability of primary care physicians.* In the Inner City North,
55 out of 68 census tracts have no primary care physicians at all. if the pro-
vision of health services by doctors practicing in large medical facilities
rather than in private offices is not counted, the data shows that the Inner
City North has only 20 primary care physicians to every 100,000 population.
This compares to a Milwaukee County figure of 84 primary care physicians to
every 100,000 population.13 This lack of health care services available to
Inner City residents has gained sufficient attention for the U.S. Department of
Health, Education and Welfare to designate the Inner City North as a "health
manpower shortage" area.14

While race-specific data on other local health conditions is limited, it is
safe to assume that other health related problems such as alcohol and drug
abuse, teenage pregnancies, and family violence (spouse and child abuse) ser-
iously affect Black families. These types of problems exist across racial
and socio-economic lines. However, Black families are often less likely to
receive assistance in dealing with these problems, largely because they lack
the financial resources necessary to receive treatment and counseling.

Over the past twenty-five years, the number of Black residents in this city has
increased more than fivefold. Blacks now account for nearly twenty percent of
the city's population. While conditions for Black citizens have improved over
the past twenty-five years, Blacks in Milwaukee continue to have lower incomes,
and are still more frequently unemployed. They are still less likely to com-
plete high school and/or go to college than are other city residents. Further,
Milwaukee Blacks continue to live in the city's more dilapidated homes and to
suffer from poor health more frequently. In brief, the data indicates that

*Primary care physicians are generally practitioners, internists, and pediatricians
who provide regular preventive health care and treat most illnesses.

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