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II. The Voting Rights Bill notwithstanding, there was not
an overwhelming ground swell of Blacks participating in the
political arena.

Explain in detail, why this is so.

III. To combat both organized and random White violence against
Blacks Congress enacted two criminal statuses, one in 1866
and another in 1870. However, until recently, these seemingly
broad and protective statutes providing criminal penalties for
civil rights violations offered little or not comfort to Blacks.
Their potential deterrence value was diluted both by a series
of judicial opinions which narrowly circumscribed the conduct
covered by the laws and the far from vigorous federal enforcement
policies. There is a landmark case that represents
a breakthrough to the court-imposed roadblocks to federal criminal
prosecution of state officials and private citizens charged
with violating the civil rights of Blacks.

A. Please name that case and discuss all the important
details thoroughly.

What was its final outcome

B. The above landmark case set the precedent for
two favourable decisions that came in 1966.

Please name those cases and recall
as much as you can about them.

IV. Federal Judge A. Leon Higginbotham, serving as a member of the
National Commission on the Causes and Prevention of Violence
in 1969, stated that the sit-ins and other non-violent protests
paved the way for the elimination of Jim Crow practices
throughout the South. His exact words were "the major impetus
for the Civil Rights Acts of 1957, 1960, 1964 and 1965 resulted
from the determination, the spirit and the non-violent
commitment of the many who continually challenge the
constitutionality of racial discrimination and awaken the national
conscience." If these statements are true, then
disruptive protests are effective.

A. What factors tend to make disruptive
protests effective?

B. Disruptive protests, based as they are on
a strong moral justification, tend to create
"creative disorder" because they disturb the
peace and tranquility of the status quo, pose


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