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the soviet agitators captivated the Rus-
sian masses. The Russian soldiers fought
Germany because the czar so ordered.
The czar was gone. Where was there
reason for fighting any further? Conse-
quently the soviet's formula, "Peace for
the soldiers," appealed to 15,000,000 sol-

"No annexations and no contributions"
was a formula so often reiterated that it
was finally accepted as a beauthful prin-
ciple. The soldiers said: "We have our
villages on the Volga. There is land
enough for all. Why should we take Con-
stantinople? It does not belong to us
and we do not want it."

The formula, "The land to the peas-
ants, "appealed to the masses. The soviet
told the soldiers: "The revolution gave
you land; go and take it." Ever present
in the soldier's mind was the fear that
unless he went home he might be over-
looked when the land was divided. The
soviet made the most of this argument.

"Industries to the Workmen."

As a corollary to "The land to the
peasants" there was "The industries to
the workmen." In all, the soviet so
worked upon the soldiers and peas-
ant workmen that all of them believed
that because the czar was deposed fur-
ther need of waging the czar's war did
not exist and also that the fruits of
the revolution should immediately be en-
joyed in full.

Logical western minds found it easy
to answer this fallacious reasoning. The
masses of western Europe understood
that behind the victorious German bayo-
nets lurked the old order for Russia,
with its dungeons, its misery and its
brutality. They understood that a Ger-
man victory meant the return of the
landed aristocrats, barons and grand
dukes. Western Europe was fully con-
cious of the dreadful German menace to
democratic culture. But the simple Rus-
sian soldier, nothing but an illiterate
Russian peasant clad in khaki, applied
primitive, not practical, tests. He rea-

"Why should we fight our German
brother, who is forced to fight by his
kaiser war lord just as the czar forced
us to fight? We have overthrown our


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oppresor. We will tell them how it was
done. They will overthrow their kaiser
and we will live happily side by side―
two great peoples enjoying full freedom."

American Mission to the Rescue.

The American mission decided that
swift educational work on a larger scale
than ever before attempted was neces-
sary to teach the Russian masses the
fatuity of this beautiful dream. It was
hoped to put an X-ray on Germany and
show the Russian masses that if Ger-
many were victorious the new freedom
would be established by the re-establish-
ment of the old order and also that Ger-
man victory would restore the newly ac-
quired land to the hands of the nobles.
The American mission decided that the
old revolutionary group led by Mme.
Breshovakaya, "the grandmother of the
revolutions," with Tahcikowsky and Laze-
reff was the best medium for conducting
an educational campaign.

The plan contemplated thousands of
speakers lecturing in the armies and the
villages on the subject of the German
menace; millions of pamphlets in simple
Russian and intelligible to the smallest
village scribes; posters, placards and col-
ored cartoons scattered broadcast.

The additional campaign was to an-
swer the soviet's slogan. "Peace for the
soldier, land to the peasants, factories to
the workmen and bread for all." The
soviet was spending millions on its own
speakers and issued tons of printed mat-

Plan for a Vast Publicity Campaign.

The American mission asked the Amer-
ican government for $1,000,000 immediate-
ly and $3,000,000 a month indefinitely for
the purpose of combating the soviet prop-
aganda. Previously Elihu Root had rec-
commended $10,000,000 for publicity.

Six weeks after Amerian mission's
request Washington sent to Russia a
branch of the committee on public in-
formation, which proceeded to tell the
Russians how many aeroplanes America
was building, how great an army America
expected to raise and how America was
certain ultimately to win the war. Nei-
ther America nor the allies ever made one



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