Search for buoys*
Coast Guard District narrative histories 1945
Because of the difficulties experienced by Lifeboat Station crews in extinguishing certain buoys in rough seas and strong tidal currents during this blackout, it was decided that if the buoys could be approached against the current at a distance of 10 or 12 feet, and a switch operated with a blow or push of a pole from a small boat, the buoy light could then be extinguished quickly under reasonable sea conditions. (Such a switch was later designed and installed on the lighted buoys on the approach to the Columbia River Bar.) As a further result of this blackout operation, a revision was made of the Blackout Plan, especially in the system of notifying civilian keepers and attendants as difficulty had been encountered in reaching these persons by telephone in their homes.
On December 10, 1941, shortly after the lights in the Columbia River Entrance Area had been blacked out, a distress signal was received from the SS MAUNA ALA which had run aground near the Columbia River Entrance about four miles south of South Jetty on Clatsop Beach. The SS MAUNA ALA, bound for Honolulu, had been out six days, and, at the declaration of war, had started back for Seattle under orders. The Master of the MAUNA ALA was not aware that the blackout of navigational lights was in effect. The million dollar cargo of Christmas effects, as well as the vessel itself, was a total loss. Lifeboat crews from Point Adams Lifeboat Station and Cape Disappointment Lifeboat Station, as well as the CGC ONANDAGA, assisted in the removal of the crew and Master. No lives were lost and no injuries sustained. In the investigation which followed, it was determined that the Master was at fault.
The enforcement of blackout in the United States at the outbreak of the war necessitated that, in addition to the blackout of municipal lights, the navigational aids in continental waters had also to be extinguished or silenced. (See blackout). To perform this action by manual labor consumed far too much valuable time and so it became expedient that a more swift method be devised. By 1942, Headquarters developed a radio control system for aids to navigation intended primarily for blacking out unattended lighted aids by means of radio signal. This system consisted of a control station transmitting specially coded ultra high frequency signals with a special receiver mounted on the buoys or other aids which responded to code signals and operated relays of gas valves to extinguish or relight gas lights or to turn off or on other types of aids. The system was designated by the coined word "RACAN" which was later changed to ANRAC to avoid confusion with RADAR beacons or RACONS.
The receiving control, in combination with an electric relay, was used to operate an electric bell signal to notify light keepers at outlying stations, lamplighters or buoy patrols that aids were to be extinguished. Such installations at certain visual vantage points permitted the person notified to observe the extinguishment procedure and to take the necessary action in those cases where receiving equipment proved faulty. This system of notification was considered as a means of relieving commercial communications facilities and was carefully planned in order to avoid serious results in case of testing operations. Weekly operational tests were made and all failures were reported in detail to Headquarters.
A transmitter and a keying unit were required for each control station, together with an emergency standby. A single control transmitter operated all receiving controls within its working radius of approximately 7 miles even though it was not within visual range of the receiving station. (The working radius of the control transmitter beyond its visual range depended on the size and nature of the obstruction; ordinary obstacles did not materially affect the working radius of a control transmitter.)
After a thorough study of the use of ANRAC, the District Coast Guard Officer, 13th Naval District, requested Headquarters' authority to install the equipment with Cape Disappointment Light Station as the control unit and the following buoys to be equipped with receivers:
Columbia River Outside Bar Ltd.Bell Buoy Main Channel Lighted Whistle Buoy 2 Clatsop Spit Lighted Whistle Buoy 6 Peacock Spit Lighted Bell Buoy 7 Clatsop Spit Lighted Whistle Buoy 10 Clatsop Spit Lighted Whistle Buoy 10A Peacock Spit Lighted Bell Buoy 9 Clatsop Spit Lighted Whistle Buoy 12 Clatsop Spit Lighted Whistle Buoy 14 Desdemona Sands Lighted Bell Buoy 11
It took approximately eight months for the delivery of the major ANRAC items to the District and it was not until March, 1944, that the first two ANRAC equipped buoys were placed on station. All maintenance and repair work for this initial installation of special buoy equipment was handled at the Tongue Point Repair Base. Maintenance personnel from this yard kept a running record sheet of both buoys together with a battery record for which a new calendar marking system was adopted. The ANRAC equipped buoys were placed on station in accordance with the normal buoy replacement schedule and for this reason, although other buoys were equipped with the ANRAC receivers at that time, they were not set out.
In the meantime, the Commandant, 13th Naval District, had ordered the relighting of buoys in Grays Harbor and Willapa Bay Areas which had been blacked out for security. This action was necessary to facilitate the movement of marine traffic related to the war effort. On the other hand, experience had demonstrated that certain hazards to defense activities were created by the inability to black out lights promptly. Since the lights in this area might have been of inestimable value to hostile craft, and, in order to circumvent any such use being made of the lights, it appeared necessary that arrangements be made for their blacking out expeditiously. Experience had further demonstrated the impracticability of getting the lights extinguished in any kind of reasonable time, except for shooting them out. In one test case, it was a matter of five days before some of the buoys could be approached without the possibility of seriously damaging a boat or buoy or injuring personnel. For these reasons, the District Coast Guard Officer requested Headquarters to install ANRAC on the following lights where other means could not be utilized to obtain reasonable prompt extinguishment:
Grays Harbor Lighted Whistle Buoy 1 Grays Harbor North Bar Lighted Whistle Buoy NC Grays Harbor Outside Bar Ltd. Whistle Buoy GH Willapa Bay Lighted Whistle Buoy 1 WIllapa Bay Lighted Whistle Buoy 12 Willapa Bay Lighted Bell Buoy 14 Willapa Bay Lighted Bell Buoy 18
Headquarters approved the Grays Harbor and Willapa Bay Project, but, the equipment was held up until the middle of 1944. (The buoys were meanwhile equipped with brackets so that installation could be completed shortly after receipt of the transmitters.) Headquarters also indicated at that time that ANRAC installations, other than Columbia Bar, had not been anticipated for the 13th Naval District and that since ANRAC had been developed principally because of potential hostile air attacks, it was to be applied only to those unattended lights on floating and fixed aids which were grouped to form patterns giving lines of orientation. It was not to be applied to relight or control lights of comparatively low intensity which were not readily recognizable to locate strategic areas or indicate definite bearings. Headquarters advised that further requests for ANRAC installations would not be favorably received.
By early 1944, blackout requirements in certain areas were materially reduced but no indication existed that such restrictions might not again be imposed. It was, therefore, desirable to continue the ANRAC program. The Coast Guard investment in ANRAC represented a considerable amount and a fair test of ANRAC in localities adjacent to better service facilities was necessary, in any case, to accomplish the ANRAC program as planned and to prove the equipment for use in remote areas where need for same continued to exist. Headquarters realized the difficulties encountered in pursuing the program due to shortage of servicing facilities but it desired that the ANRAC program be brought to a logical conclusion. ANRAC installations were modified only to the extent that aids of lesser importance were ANRAC equipped and field tested before the program was extended to include all aids in the original plan. Sufficient aids of lesser importance were field tested to determine the effectiveness of ANRAC under varying conditions. Daily preliminary tests of ANRAC equipment on the Columbia River bar buoys indicated that their performance was entirely satisfactory. However, due to the fact that there was probably less that 5% of the time in the fall of the year and continuing through the winter that all of the controlled buoys could be seen from Cape Disappointment, it appeared that a questionable situation would be created by extinguishing the lights on these buoys
daily and then having no assurance that relighting was accomplished. In order to verify the conditions that existed in connection with this situation, visibility tests were made on all ten buoys twice each day without the use of control equipment. A tabulation sheet showing all ten controlled buoys, the date and hour, an indication of each buoy light that was visible before 0800 and after 1200 each day was submitted to the District Coast Guard Office weekly. In 3920 observations, lights were visible by telescope from Cape Disappointment Lookout Station only 2900 times. This figure included all ten buoys listed on the previous page, during period from 17 July, 1944, to 12 February, 1945, at which time the visibility tests were discontinued.
By November, 1944, Headquarters became interested in the peace time value of ANRAC and requested that the District Coast Guard Officer prepare a list of such locations in the 13th Naval District where ANRAC could be used for peace time operation. The major complicated features (essential for security) were to be simplified to meet peace time application to unattended radiobeacons or fog signals where maintenance by an operating crew and expenses related thereto presented objectionable difficulties. In response, the District Coast Guard Office listed five fog signals near the mouth of the Columbia River within a three mile radius from Point Adams Lifeboat Station, Hammond, Oregon, and the fog signals at Tacoma Waterway, Milwaukie Shoal and Point Defiance all within a radius of 4 1/2 miles of Browns Point Light near Tacoma, Washington. However, the District Coast Guard Officer did not feel that ANRAC control of shore lights during peace time would have any advantage over the sun relays currently installed due to the higher cost and a greater possibility for human error.
Headquarters was requested, since the war time ANRAC program had proved unsatisfactory, that authority to discontinue the radio control of the lights on the buoys at the entrance to the Columbia River be granted. Due to the fact
that an outage on any one of these buoys created a difficult situation and also because the necessity for an emergency blackout seemed extremely doubtful, this action seemed practicable. At the same time, it was requested that Headquarters postpone indefinitely the installation of the ANRAC equipment on buoys at the entrance of Willapa Bay and Grays Harbor as the equipment had not yet been placed on the buoys due to delay in installing the related control equipment on shore. This action, to remove ANRAC from Columbia River, Grays Harbor and Willapa Bay, was approved but the request for the installation of ANRAC on the five fog signals was not. Authority was granted, however, to equip Browns Point Light Station, newar Tacoma, Washington, as a control point for fog signals at Tacoma Waterway, Alki Point, near Seattle, Washington, as control station for Duwamish Head Fog Signal, Point No Point, Hansville, Washington, as control station for Double Bluff Lighted Trumpet Buoy and Point Adams, Hammond, Oregon, as control station for Desdemona Sands Fog Signal. A form No. 2609 for the installation at Duwamish Head was forwarded to Headquarters. No further action was taken by the District Coast Guard Officer on other points approved by Headquarters.
RACONS (see following chapter) were primarily navigational aids for aircraft during the war years. However, since RADAR equipment was installed aboard Navy vessels, merchant ships, Coast Guard cutters and numerous other surface craft, it became another function of the Coast Guard to establish and maintain some sort of system to enable these ships to calibrate their RADAR equipment. A system of buoys equipped with targets or reflectors was developed by the Navy to furnish these vessels a means of testing their RADAR range and the alignment of the optical system with their RADAR antennae.
The first such buoy in the District established for the specific purpose of RADAR range calibration was placed in the west end of Dalco Passage in September, 1943. This buoy was installed at the request of the Seattle-Tacoma Shipyard and the Navy and was used mainly in the calibration of RADAR installations aboard newly constructed vessels. The buoy was an ordinary first class tall type can bearing no special equipment; it was in operation as long as the Seattle-Tacoma Shipyard was engaged in ship construction.
As the war progressed, the traffic of damaged vessels to the Puget Sound Navy Yard for repair, increased. The single buoy in Dalco Passage was found inadequate to meet calibration demands and its type was not entirely satisfactory. The need for additional RADAR calibration buoys was plainly evident due to the fact that RADAR installations aboard surface craft had also greatly increased. Using the regular first class can as a base, three more buoys, designed for RADAR calibration, were developed and located southeast of Blake Island. These buoys utilized the lighting equipment (Wallace and Tiernan) for use in can buoys and which had originally been purchased by the 13th Naval District for installation on Jefferson Point Degaussing Range. As buoys were stationed in waters through which towing vessels proceeding form the Tacoma-Olympia Area toward Seattle passed, small flags were installed to make the buoys more easily sighted by the towing boat operators. Although the buoys and lights were provided by the Coast Guard, the reflectors and additional floats were manufactured and installed by the Navy. The duty for maintaining the buoys and servicing the lights fall to the Coast Guard.
South of Willapa Bay, approximately 4 miles off the Washington Coast, a target buoy for aircraft RADAR calibration was placed on station in September, 1944. This target buoy was the only special buoy in the District not maintained for marine RADAR calibration alone. Installed temporarily at the request of the Naval Air Station, Astoria,
The Port Orchard Buoy No. 1, located in Sinclair Inlet, in Washington, was converted for RADAR calibration by the installation of special RADAR reflectors manufactured and installed by the Navy. These reflectors were so designed as to give a flat surface no matter in what position the buoy or ship might be. In order to limit the drift of the buoy, it was moored by three sinkers, each sinker having a mooring chain attached to a swivel at the bottom of the buoy. This arrangement cut down the normal drift to not more than five yards. This particular type of mooring was developed in the District to increase the stability of buoys for special stations.
In addition to the floating calibration units, three minor light structures were equipped with RADAR reflectors at Point Herron, Washington, Duwamish Head, Washington and Desdemona Sands, Oregon. These metal reflectors were mounted in the piling of the structure and therefore, did not change in the general appearance nor lessen the structures' effectiveness as aids to navigation. The installation at Desdemona Sands consisted of a metallic screen in two panels, each panel 8' by 8', forming an inverted "V". This screen was used for accurate orientation of the Army Service Craft Detector SCR-296 which was installed on Cape Disappointment. The reflector at Duwamish Head was requested by the Navy as necessary for five control RADAR calibration of ships in that area. The reflector there consisted of two cross metallic planes mounted on the piling underneath the lights. The reflector at Duwamish Head, Washington, proved most successful where a shore type reflector had previously failed to meet desired requirements.
In April, 1945, two of the three calibration targets and lighting equipment on the Blake Island RADAR calibration buoys were lost. The buoys were replaced by Coast Guard first class regular cans, equipped with 150mm lanterns. Due to the great depth of the water in that area, it was impossible to use chain as a mooring and consequently steel wire ropes were furnished by the Navy Yard for mooring. Dragging operations were carried out by Coast Guard tenders in an effort to recover the lost equipment, but the attempt was unsuccessful.
The last special purpose buoy to be installed, was a boresighting buoy requested by the Anti-Aircraft Training Center at Pacific Beach, Washington, and located 4,000 yards off the coast from the Station. Prior to the establishment of this buoy, a Coast Guard patrol craft from Grays Harbor, Washington, Had moored off the coast while the station's guns were being boresighted. The establishment of such a buoy not only facilitated the boresighting but also released
the patrol boats for more appropriate duties. The buoy was a first class tall type nun, painted white and lettered "A".
The first four obstruction buoys to be established in the District were placed at the Entrance to Port Townsend, Washington, to mark the Navy Submarine net a year before the war. Shortly afterwards, the Navy also established a magnetic survey range at Port Townsend and requested the Coast Guard to provide and plant four ice spar buoys there; funds for the transaction were provided by the Navy. This particular type of buoy, the ice spar, was selected because of its availability in the District, its length and its ability to remain vertical during any stage of the tide. These buoys were authorized by Headquarters but were never installed here as the magnetic survey range was moved to Point Jefferson and they were placed on station in that area shortly after the outbreak of the war. All these buoys had a buoyancy chamber at the low water flotation mark to keep them upright in deep water and they were moored with a chain pendant. This type also marked the range positions with the least swinging radius as the water was too deep for a fixed structure. Additional flotation chambers were provided for the lighted buoys to keep the buoy floating perpendicularly. The fog signal, however, was necessarily installed on a fixed structure.
Two Port Townsend Obstruction Lights ("A" and "D") were established in 1941, together with two unlighted Obstruction Buoys ("B" and "C"). Headquarters, in August of that year, approved the installation of Marrowstone Obstruction Light 1 and Point Hudson Dolphin Obstruction Light 2 at the entrance of Port Townsend Bay in Washington. Two other lights were authorized by Headquarters but were not installed as the need for them had decreased. In addition to these special aids to navigation, the Port Townsend area provided an obstruction lighted bell buoy, obstruction light and a lighted bell buoy. The Point Jefferson Degaussing Range included lighted spar buoys (12 were originally established but 2 were discontinued) a mooring buoy, placed on station there for small guard vessels.
These special RADAR calibration buoys were war measures and, though activities in this field were continued after the war, they were gradually reduced. The Degaussing Range, however, continued in operation at full strength, the Navy having informed the District Coast Guard Officer that the range would be necessary for at least a year after cessation of hostilities. These special aids, then, remained to the Coast Guard to service and maintain; one more activity added to its peace time function.
LOCAL NOTICE TO MARINERS
A special function of the Lighthouse Service had long been the issuance of daily notices to local mariners concerning current data of District waters. After the consolidation, the Notice to Mariners continued to be published over the signature of the Commander, Seattle District and later, the District Coast Guard Officer.
Information for the notices was received from Coast Guard, Navy, Army Engineers, Merchant vessels, Canadia authorities or any unit or individual finding a discrepancy in any navigational aid or menaces to safe navigation. Misplaced buoys or extinguished lights, defective signals in sound or light, derelicts, logs, debris of any sort which constituted a menace, soundings of newly dredged areas, new regulations and limitations of restricted areas were the bulk of information published.
The Notices were numbered consecutively, number one being issued at the beginning of each clendar year. In 1944, there were 183 more notices published than in 1934, the increase being due to the war restrictions, floating rafts, unexploded depth charges and the submarines menace. Notices were not published on Sunday nor on days when no changes in aids had occurred. This data was broadcast, during the war, over local commercial radio stations during a sponsored program for the Coast Guard. This program was discontinued at the close of hostilities. 1850 copies were distributed daily to a mailing list of 550 units or individuals in 1945. In 1939, 91 addresses received the Notice. This tremendous growth was due to the heavy war traffic of merchant and naval vessels.
Mariners depend whole heartedly upon these Notices as guides for safe navigation. Evidence of this has been shown in the alacrity with which operators notify the Aids to Navigation Section of discrepancies in aids or menaces which they sighted during their activities.
CARD FILE SYSTEM
A card record system was developed in the Aids to Navigation Section for each buoy in the District, arranged geographically in a visual card file with visual color signals indicating the general progress in buoy relief work and other pertinent information. On the face of the card was typed the name and the Light List number or page number of the buoy. The various activities or conditions were noted on the card according to the following outline as indicated on the attached key:
The current year was typed below the heading "YEAR". Only one line was required for the year unless one or more of the following conditions existed: a. More than one buoy installed in one year. b. More than four sections in one year. c. Extinguished and off-station same month. d. Relieved, relocated, changed type of damage same month.
II. SERIAL NUMBER OF BUOY Under this heading the serial numbers of the buoys were typed whether installed or relieved.
III. MONTH Each line in this section was divided into 21 squares, one for each month of they year. Each square was divided into 4 triangles. By placing different colored triangles in the various positions, the section taken was indicated according to the following legend:
RED: OFF STATION, MISSING OR LIGHT EXTINGUISHEDWhen an emergency existed , a red tab was placed on the month in which the emergent condition was reported. When condition was corrected, red tab was removed.
PURPLE: SCHEDULED FOR ACTIONWhen a tender had been assigned to take action on a buoy, a purple tab was placed on the month for whihc action was scheduled.
BLUE/GREEN: RELIEVED THIS YEARWhen relief had been made, a blue/green tab was placed on the month relief was made and the purple tab removed.
GREEN/BLUE: RELIEVED LAST YEARGreen/blue indicated the month the buoy was relieved and previous year.(Note: Blue and green tabs alternate each year to indicate the month buoys were relieved.)
ORANGE: DUE FOR RECHARGE THIS YEARWhen an aid was relieved, the period of operation of the light was computed and the month due for recharge, if it fell within the current year, was indicated by placing an orange tab on that month.
YELLOW: DUE FOR RECHARGE NEXT YEARIf the month for recharge fell in the next year, a yellow tab was placed on hte month due for recharge.
The following tabs, placed on the left margin of the card, indicated:PURPLE: Buoy light blacked outYELLOW: Buoy equipped with ANRAC cotrolORANGE: Light characteristc to be changed
FISHING SEASONVarious buoys were temporarily discontinued during the fishing season for the convenience of fishermen. This was recorded on Form D-222 (the card file) in the following manner:
In order to keep the navigational aids in proper working condition, a fleet of tenders was necessary to service buoys and lights throughout the waterways of the nation. With the first Congressional appropriation for buoys for the Northwest, a tender, the SHUBRICK, a wooden hulled, side wheeler, was assigned to the Pacific Coast. The SHUBRICK, as well as other early tenders, served double duty, acting as both buoy tender and revenue outter. In her latter capacity, the SHUBRICK carried 12-pound cannons as well as small arms. This single vessel serviced all aids along the coast until February, 1880, when the vessel was transferred to the lower Pacific Coast and relieved in the Seattle area by the first MANZANITA. Of historical interest is the fact that the SHUBRICK was the first vessel of considerable size to navigate the Columbia River beyond the present location of the Bonneville Dam.
As traffic in the Northwest waters increased, so did the need for navigational aids and, consequently, the work of the tenders. The first MANZANITA carried the burden along until the COLUMBINE, a U.S. Army Engineers vessel, was assigned to the same area. This ship was built and maintained by the U.S. Army Engineers and operated by the Lighthouse Service for servicing aids of the Lighthouse Establishment. ( As the Bureau of Lighthouses was previously called.) The MANZANITA was sunk off Warrior Rock in the vicinity of St. Helens, Oregon, in the Columbia River, and the COLUMBINE performed tender duties alone until the second MANZANITA was completed. These two, together with the HEATHER, operated for several years until the COLUMBINE was transferred to the Honolulu District. The ROSE, and soon thereafter, the RHODODENDRON and FIR were commissioned and assigned to duty in the Seattle Area. When the FIR reported, the HEATHER was removed from duty and tied to the sea wall at the Lake Union Locks until the outbreak of the war. At that time, the Army borrowed her and she was never returned. The old MANZANITA lay for a considerable time a derelict, off Warrior Rock, but was raised, refitted and is still operating as a seagoing tug under the name DANIEL KERN. Two fine tenders were commissioned and attached to the 13th Naval District during the war, the BASSWOOD, 1944, and the BLUEBELL, the following year. The BASSWOOD was transferred after a year's general aids to navigation duty which involved servicing isolated units and the LORAN project in Vancouver Island. ( See LORAN). In addition to these large tenders, the CG-65302-D was engaged in buoy work and the maintenance of minor aids on the Upper Columbia River between the Dalles, Oregon and Pasco, Washington.
The jobs confronting the buoy tenders were much thesame - relieve buoys annually, replace and recharge bat-teries, install acetylane accumulators and establish new aids.The routine, however, was never monotonous. Treacherouswaters, dangerous shoals, fog, storms and the nature of the equipment made the task of the buoy men a hazardous as well ashighly specialized operation. Winter activities were es-pecially gruelling as sharp winds blew icy water on the menas they worked, whilethe rolling ship withit slippery deckmade each movementa hazardous one.The accompanyingphotographs showingthese men at work andgive an idea of thegigantic task theyperformed - thanklessexcept for the grati-tude of those whoselives were safeguardedby the aids so effi-ciently cared for.
1891 Lighthouse Keepers Logs
Journal of Light-house Station at Cape Foulweather Oregon
24 Light and moderate breeze S.E. to N.W. these 24 hours with hail snow and rain squalls - Sea smooth - General duties for day - Barometer going up fast - Keeper went to Newport after mail I hear that there is a small Sloup on North beach about 2 miles that came ashore about the 20th of month.
25 Light to moderate and fresh breeze W. to S.W. these 24 hours - little damp during 24 hours - Sea smooth - 1st asst and M. I. L. Smith putting 200 galls of Mineral oil in Oil room. Today Keeper went up north beach to see [w]reck of the sloop - Keeper went to Newport to take the mail - Left station at 2:00 am.
26 Fresh to moderate breeze S. W. to S. East these 24 hours first half of 24 hours rain last part of 24 hours fair weather - Sea very smooth - General duties for the day - Keeper went fishing today - Steamer Willamette Valley]] sailed today - Barometer going down - Keeper returned to the station at 9.30. A. M.
27 Light S. E. to East wind these 24 hours with rain first part of 24 hours - Last half of 24 hours clear fine weather - Sea quite smooth - Keeper & Mr. Smith went fishing - Mr. Smith also working in shop today.
28 Moderate and light E. & N.E to North west these 24 hours first half of 24 hours rain - Last part fair weather - Sea very smooth - General duties for the day - Keeper and M. I. L. Smith went to Newport
1 Light N.W. to East wind these 24 hours dry during 24 hours and fair weather - Sea smooth - General duties for the day . Keepers went fishing Today.
2 Moderate & light East to N.W. these 24 hours clear day and cold during 24 hours - Sea very smooth - General duties for day - Keepers went fishing Had three visitors - 1st asst went to Newport.
3 Light N. East to North wind and calm day and cold and clear weather during 24 hours - Sea very smooth General duties for the day - Keeper went to Newport - 1st asst and Mr. Smith went fishing
4 Light variable winds these 24 hours snow hail & rain during 24 hours - Sea very smooth - General duties for the day - Steamer Manzanita arrived off the Yaquina bar at 1 P.M and put some buoys down. And at 2:30 P.M. is laying off West of the light and then sailed north
5 Moderate and fresh breeze S. E. to East with rain and snow first part of 24 hours - Last part of 24 hours light East to N.W. wind fair weather - Sea quite smooth - General duties for day - Keeper went fishing today.
6 Light N.W. to East calm dry & fair weather during 24 hours - Sea very smooth - General duties for the day. Mr. Smith working in garden - Keeper went to Newport on important business. Left the station at 9 A. M. Steamer Willamette Valley arrived this morning
8 Light N.W. to S. East wind first part of 24 hours fair weather - Last part of 24 hours fresh breeze to a gale South rain Sea moderately smooth - General duties for day - Keeper went fishing
9 Strong to fresh and moderate breeze S. to N.W. rain first part of 24 hours - Last part of 24 hours fair weather - Sea smooth - General duties for the day -
10 Light N.W. to East wind first part of 24 hours - Last part of 24 hours light to moderate
1892 Lighthouse Keeper Logs
Journal of Light-House Station at Cape Foulweather 1892
27: Light variable winds and little damp first part of 24 hours. Last part of 24 hours light wind to moderate and fresh breeze N.W. clear fine weather. Sea very smooth. General duties for day. Steamer Willamett Valley sailed today. Keeper making out a bill of lumber for repair of fence & steps.
28: Light N.W. to East wind first part of 24 hours. Last part of 24 hours moderate to fresh breeze to a gale. E. to S.E. and South with rain most of the 24 hours. Sea quite rough. General duties for the day. 1st ass't went fishing. The barometer went down to 29.80???
29: Gale to fresh breeze South these 24 hours with rain most of 24 hours. Sea little rough. General duties for the day. The barometer down to 29.90. Keeper went to Newport after the mail and supplies.
30: Light S Wind to moderate and fresh breeze S. & S.E. these 24 hours. First part of 24 hours light rain. Last part of 24 hours fair weather. Sea quite smooth. Keeper & 1st ass't went fishing. Keeper fixing hen coop. 1st ass't also went to Newport.
1: Light South to S. East and East wind first part of 24 hours with fair weather. Last part of 24 hours light South wind rain showers. Sea very smooth. General duties for day. 1st ass't went fishing. Keeper went clamming today.
2: Light S. East wind first part of 24 hours with fair and dry weather. Last part of 24 hours light variable winds with rain showers. Sea very smooth. General duties for day. Keeper and 2nd ass't went to Newport today.
3: Light variable winds & calm first part of 24 hours with a little thick fog. Last part of 24 hours light to moderate and fresh breeze N.W. clear fine weather. Keeper working in the garden. Steamer Willamett crossed bar from San Francisco. 1st ass't went fishing and to Newport after the mail. The barometer is down to 29.90 at 4.P.M. U.S. Light House Tender passed pay??? the rap??? going South to attend to the buoys at Yaquina bay.
4: Moderate breeze to light N.W. wind with clear fine weather during first part of 24 hours. Last part of 24 hours cloudy but dry. Sea very smooth. General duties for day. Keeper and 2nd ass't went to Newport today.
5: Light S. to S.E. wind with fair weather these 24 hours. Sea very smooth. General duties for the day. Steamer Willamett Valley sailed today. Keeper went to Newport on May 5th, 1892 Inspection Important business. Left the Station at 9 A.M. The barometer stands 30.8 at 1 P.M. today. U.S. Light House tender arrived at 5 P.M. Inspector landed and made inspection and left for Astoria at 5.30 P.M.
6: Light N.W. to variable winds these 24 hours with fair and warm weather. Sea very smooth. General duties for the day. 1st ass't went fishing. 2nd ass't went to Newport. Keeper returned to the station at 1 P.M.
7: Light S.W. to South wind with frequent rain & hail showers. Sea very smooth. General duties for the day. The barometer is going up stands 30.22 at 7 P.M. Keeper went to Newport on important business.
8: Light S.E. wind & calm first part of 24 hours. Last part of 24 hours light N.W. wind fair and dry weather during the 24 hours. Sea very smooth. General duties for the day. Had four visitors today. Keeper and 1st ass't went fishing today.
9: Light N.W. wind with fair weather during first part of 24 hours. Last part of 24 hours light South to N.W. wind, rain. Sea very smooth. Keeper went to Newport on business. 1st and 2nd ass't painting roof of store house, 1st ass't quarters, and Oil house.
10: Strong to fresh and moderate breeze South these 24 hours. First part of 24 hours rain, last part of 24 hours fair weather. Sea quite smooth. Keeper & 2nd ass't mixing paint to paint buildings. 1st ass't working on the road and went to Newport today. 1st ass't Edward Rice and 2nd ass't Isaac L. Smith putting 200 galls of Mineral oil in Oil room today.
11: Moderate breeze S.E. to south to light N.W. wind these 24 hours with frequent rain showers during the 24 hours. [continued on next page]
Box 252 List of supplies 1885, YB, YH Emery Pay 1887
Oct. 23 Charts Nos. 655_656_and 659, 13th Dist. to be sent Oct. 26 Charts 659 [2 copies] 649 & 658 - forwd. Oct. 27 Columbia River Walker's Isld. Channel_change in buoyage action approved Oct. 27 Columbia River Martins' Isld Bar - lump - buoyage - ??? Oct. 30 Chart No. 641 ??? forwarded Nov. 9 Chart No. 662_forwarded_ Nov. 12 Cape Blanco condition of tower &c., Keeper to be admonished Dec. 5 Cape Disappointment - Condition - Kper. to be admonished Dec. 5 Columbia River Prairie Channel-3 single pile beacons Dec. 5 Cape Foulweather Keepers to wear Uniforms _ Regulation Dec. 5 Columbia River Whistling buoy - repairs - authority Dec. 8 Columbia River Land Isld. - day beacon - rebuilding views asked Dec. 9 Chart No. 641 - forwarded Dec. 9 Cape Arago Boat_authority Dec. 14 Cape Foulweather Expenditure of oil - Brilliancy of Lt. - to be maintained Dec. 19 Channels, Rivers &c., Buoys for marking_Regulations Dec. 31 Cape Arago Boat - purchase - authority Dec. 31 Cape Arago - Boat - recovery - Payt - authd. Dec. 31 Coal & Provisions Departure Bay and Victoria Shubuck - authority not granted
1893 Lighthouse Keeper Logs
Journal of Light-house Station at Cape Foulweather Oregon
April 22: Moderate breeze to light South wind first part of 24 hours. Last part of 24 hours moderate to fresh breeze S. to S.W. with rain during 24 hours. Sea smooth. General duties for the day. Keeper & 1st asst. went fishing.
23: Moderate breeze to light East to S.E. wind first part of 24 hours. Last part of 24 hours light variable wind & calm with rain showers during 24 hours. Sea quite rough. Keeper & 1st asst. went fishing.
24: Light N. West wind there 24 hours. First part of 24 hours little damp. Last part of 24 hours light fair weather. Sea little rough. General duties for the day. 1st asst. taking covers off of mineral oil cases ready to put into oil room. 1st asst. also went fishing. Keeper & 2nd asst went to Newport. US Steamer Maryanita arrived of Yaquina bar and crossed to Newport at 5AM from Astoria to do the buoy work.
25: Light variable winds first part of 24 hours. Last part of 24 hours light N. West wind with fair weather during 24 hours. Sea very smooth. Keeper and 1st asst. spadeing & planting garden & went fishing. Today U.S. Light-House tender Maryanita putting the buoys down at the entrance of Yaquina.
26: Light S. East wind & calm first part of 24 hours. Last part of 24 hours light wind to moderate breeze South. First part of 24 hours fair weather. Last part of 24 hours little damp. Sea very smooth. General duties for the day. Keeper spadeing & planting garden. 1st asst. went fishing. 2nd asst. went to Newport. Manzenita passed by light at 6AM going to Astoria having replaced buoys at Yaquina.
27: Light S. East wind & calm first part of 24 hours with fair weather. Last part of 24 hours light variable winds to moderate breeze. N. West with light showers. Sea quite smooth. Keeper & 2nd asst. spadeing & planting garden. 1st asst. went fishing.
28: Moderate breeze to light N. West wind these 24 hours first part of 24 hours face weather. Last part of 24 hours little damp. Sea smooth. General duties for the day. Keeper and 2nd asst. went up on the North beach trout fishing. 1st asst. went ocean fishing and to Newport after the mail.
29: Light N.W. to S.East wind light rain shower first part of 24 hours. Last part of 24 hours light South wind with light rain showers. Sea smooth. 1st asst went fishing. Keeper spadeing & planting garden. Also making out monthly & absence reports.
30: Fresh to moderate breeze S.W. to W.N.West these 24 hours. First part of 24 hours rain. Last part of 24 hours light rain showers. Sea quite smooth. General duties for the day. Steamer Willamette Valley sailed from Yaquina Bay.
May 1: Light S. East wind with dry & fair weather first part of 24 hours. Last part of 24 hours moderate to fresh breeze South with frequent light rain showers. Sea smooth. Keeper went to Newport to take mail. 1st asst. went fishing. 2nd asst. went over on the beach to see about cutting wood for him.
2: Moderate & fresh breeze to gale South with hard rain first part of 24 hours. Last part of 24 hours fresh breeze S. to S.W. & West with frequent rain showers. Sea quite smooth. General duties for day. Keeper planting garden today.
3: Moderate & fresh breeze West with rain shower first part of 24 hours. Last part of 24 hours light South wind fair weather. Sea smooth. 1st & 2nd asst. heating 200 gall of oil in oil-house. Keeper went to Newport today. 2nd & 1st asst. spadeing up 2nd asst ??? of garden.
4: Light South wind first part of 24 hours. Last part of 24 hours fresh to strong breeze South to S.W. with rain shower during 24 hours. Sea little rough. General duties for the day. Keeper & 1st asst. went fishing today.
5: Light variable winds there 24 hours. First part of 24 hours light rain showers. Last part of 24 hours fair weather. Sea quite rough. 1st asst. went ocean fishing and to Newport after mail. Keeper & 2nd asst. went trout fishing up the North beach.
6: Light wind to moderate breeze N.W. there 24 hours with clean fine & warm weather during 24 hours. Sea smooth. 1st & 2nd asst. planting garden. Keeper & 2nd asst working the road a little & also went to Newport after supplies.
1894 Keeper Logs
Journal of Light-house Station at Cape Foulweather Oregon 1894
7: Light variable winds; thick, damp fog first part of 24 hours. Last part of 24 hours light N. West wind; clear, fine and warm weather. Sea quite smooth. General duties for the day. The Steam[er] Greg Robarts while towing a Schooner into Alsea??? the 4th. The Capt and two men were washed overboard, the Capt & one man were drowned the other man was saved. 2nd asst went to Newport to work on his lots. Keeper went to Newport on important business. Left the station at 9 A.M.
8: Light variable winds these 24 hours with clear, fine and very warm [weather]. Sea smooth. General duties for the day. 1st asst went fishing. Keeper returned to the station at 2.40 P.M. Light House Tender Manzanita arrived off the Yaquina bar at 3 P.M. from the south and passed the station at 3.30 going north for Columbia River. The barometer is 29.96 today.
9: Light East wind with clear, fine and warm weather first part of 24 hours. Last part of 24 hours light S. East wot South wind, thick, damp fog. Sea smooth. GEneral duties for the day. 1st asst went fishing today.
10: Light variable winds with thick, damp fog first part of 24 hours. Last part of 24 hours light East wind; clear, fine and warm weather. Sea quite smooth. General duties for the day. 1st asst went fishing. Keeper & 2nd asst went to Newport. Steamer Homer arrived from San Francisco. Steamer S. Coast sailed for San Francisco.
11: Light East to No. East wind with clear, fine weather first part of 24 hours. Last part of 24 hours N. West and thick, damp fog. Sea smooth. General duties for the day. 1st asst went fishing. Steamer Homer sailed for San Francisco.
12: Light East to North and N. West [wind] these 24 hours. First part of 24 hours some fog. Last part of 24 hours clear, fine and warm weather. Sea smooth. General duties for the day. Keeper and 2nd asst went to Newport on business. 1st asst went fishing. Schooner Kate & Anne sailed from Newport north of this light to hunt for Sea Otter.
13: Light East wind, fair weather first part of 24 hours. Last part of 24 hours light variable winds with clear, fine and warm weather during 24 ours. Sea very smooth. General duties for the day. 1st and 2nd assts went fishing today.
14: Light East wind, fair weather first part of 24 hours. Last part of 24 hours light wind to moderate and fresh breeze N.West with frequent light rain showers. Sea very smooth. General duties for the day. U.S. Light-House Steamer Manzanita laying off the bar this morning, putting buoys at the entrance of Yaquina, and crossed into Newport at 11 A.M. 1st asst Edward Rice went to Newport at 3.30 after the mail.
15: Fresh to moderate breeze North to N.West these 24 hours. First part of 24 hours light rain showers. Last part of 24 hours clear, fine weather. Sea quite smooth. General duties for the day. Keeper and 2nd asst went to Newport to get some one to haul the Cement and etc., that the Light House Engineer sent by Steamer Manzanita and landed the same at the Government Wharf at Newport. Mr Whitten is hauling the freight to the station for $1.90 cts per ton. Lieut Blish, asst Inspector arrived at the station at 3 P.M. Inspected station and left at 4 P.M. for the North beach to Inspect the Whistling Buoy that went ashore from Yaquina bar.
[within Month column beside entry for November 15: J.B. Blish, U.S.N., Asst Insp 15 Nov 1894]
16: Light North wind first part of 24 hours. Last part of 24 hours light variable winds with fair & cool weather during 24 hours. Sea smooth. Keeper stowing away Cement and Killing a hog for 2nd asst. Mr. Whitten hauling Cement. 1st asst Edward Rice and 2nd asst went fishing. Keepers putting 200 Gall Mineral Oil in Oil-room.
17: Light wind to moderate breeze South with light rain during 24 hours. Sea quite smooth. General duties for day. Keeper went to Newport to take Mrs. Plummer to take the steamer for San Francisco. 2nd asst went to Newport.
1902-03 Keeper Logs
Journal of Light-house Station at Yaquina Head Oregon1903 RECORD OF IMPORTANT EVENTS AT THE STATION, BAD WEATHER, &c.March 1: Light East wind and variable winds first part of 24 hours with clear weather - Last part of 24 hours fair and high dry fog - Sea very smooth - General duties for day -Barometer 29.92 - Keeper showing two visitors in Tower - 2nd asst went to Newport to buy a bow today.
2: Light S. East wind with light rain showers first part of 24 hours - Last part of 24 hours cloudy and fair - Sea smooth - General duties for day - Barometer 29.66 - Keeper washing - 2nd asst cutting wood today.
3: Light North to S.E. & South wind these 24 hours with fair & cool weather - Sea smooth - Barometer 29.62 - Keeper & 2nd asst went to Newport - General duties for day.
4: Light wind to moderate breeze East to north these 24 hours with fair & cool weather - Sea very smooth - General duties for the day - Barometer 29.62 to 29.72 - Keeper planting garden - 1st asst went to Newport after supplies - 2nd asst went fishing and working in the garden.
5: Light wind to moderate breeze East to North these 24 hours - first part of 24 hours clear and cool - Last part of 24 hours high dry fog & fair weather - Sea smooth - General duties for the day - Barometer 29.70 to 29.82 - 1st asst showing visitors in Tower - Keeper & 2nd asst working on wood in the woods.
6: Fresh breeze S. East to S. and S. West these 24 hours - First part of 24 hours fair - Last part of 24 hours frequent rain showers - Sea little rough - General duties for the day - Barometer 29.90 - Keeper cording wood in woods one half mile from the sta - 2nd asst working in shop & garden half mile from station.
7: Fresh breeze to gale South these 24 hours with rain during 24 hours - Sea quite rough - General duties for the day - Barometer 29.80 to 29.60 - 2nd asst W.P. Ford working in the shop - Keeper writing in the Office today.
8: Fresh breeze S. to West and light S. West wind these 24 hours with frequent rain & hail squalls - Sea quite smooth - Barometer 29.51 to 29.90 Keeper went to Newport after mail & supplies - General duties for day - 2nd asst working in the shop.
9: Fresh breeze to gale S.W. to S. rain these 24 hours - Sea quite rough - General duties for the day - Barometer 29.90 to 29.85 - 2nd asst working in the shop.
10: Heavy Gale South these 24 hours rain and thick weather - Sea very rough - General duties for day - Barometer 29.90 to 29.50 - The wire fence on North side of bluff blew down.
11: Gale South to fresh breeze North west these 24 hours - First part of 24 hours rain - Last part of 24 hours fair weather - Sea moderately smooth - Keeper and assts repairing wire fence Wagon house door and other small repairs - 1st asst went to Newport after mail & supplies - Barometer 29.50 to 29.90.
12: Light North & East wind these 24 hours with fair and cool weather - Sea smooth - Barometer 30.00 to 29.84 - 1st asst repairing roof and other repairs on his Dwelling caused from the late Gale - he also went fishing - 2nd asst washing and putting glass in storm windows in front of Dwelling - Keeper also putting glass in storm sash - Had two visitors today.
13: Light North to East wind these 24 hours - First part of 24 hours rain - Last part of 24 hours damp and cool - Sea very smooth - Barometer 29.84 to 29.66 - Keeper working on Quarterly report to Inspector & Engineer - 2nd asst went to Newport after mail & supplies.
14: Light variable winds these 24 hours - First part of 24 hours light rain showers - Last part of 24 hours fair weather - Sea very smooth - 1st asst went fishing - 2nd asst throwing old wire over bluff - Barometer 29.66 to 29.80 - Keeper went to Newport after mail & supplies.
15: Light variable to North winds these 24 hours with fair weather - Sea very smooth - General duties for the day - 1st asst went fishing - 2nd asst went two miles from the sta for recreation - Barometer 29.80 to 29.86 - U.S. Steamer Columbine passed sta at 3. P.M. for Yaquina to put in Buoys Then left South at 5. P.M.
16: Light North and East wind to moderate breeze North with clear and cool weather - Sea very smooth - Barometer 29.88 - 1st asst went fishing and planting garden - 2nd asst went one half mile from station to fix fence prepairing to plant garden & working in shop - Keeper working in shop & garden - U.S. Steamer Collumbine passed the station going North at 3.00 P.M.
17: Moderate breeze to light North wind these 24 hours - First part of 24 hours rain showers - Last part of 24 hours fair weather - Sea very smooth - Barometer 29.90 to 30.10 - 1st asst went fishing and to Newport after mail - 2nd asst planting garden 1/2 mile from sta - Keeper spading garden today.